Patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder can have a range of symptoms; issues with concentration and executive function are seen in the early stages of the disease. With disease progression psychomotor slowing, depression, apathy, and irritability develop. Antiretroviral therapies make HIV-associated dementia less common.
REM behavior disorders are seen classically in Lewy body dementia. Visuospatial dysfunction is a prominent feature in Alzheimer’s disease and Lewy body dementia. Hallucinations are also a prominent feature of Lewy body dementia. A first-time seizure in a patient with HIV raises the concern for an opportunistic CNS infection such as toxoplasmosis.