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A 45-year-old patient presents with complaints of new-onset double vision. On the general neurologic exam, you note the patient tilts their head to the left. The remainder of the physical exam is unremarkable. Which of the following is the most common underlying pathologic cause of this issue?
Which of the following is most likely to cause the pathology seen in the image below (white arrow)?
A 4-year-old boy with a history of mild cerebral palsy comes to the clinic for his annual follow-up. Since last seen in the clinic the patient and family have noted that he has been having increased difficulties with his left leg. Most days he is able to ambulate with a hand-held mobility device. However, more recently family has noticed that he not walking as much as he used to. On examination, there is increased spasticity and hyperreflexia at the ankle. The right leg had normal strength and tone. What is the most appropriate therapy for the patient’s symptoms?
A 55-year-old male presents to the clinic with a complaint of right lower extremity pain and weakness. On examination of the right lower extremity, there is decreased sensation to pinprick on the medial calf and foot, 4/5 strength with knee extension, and a mute patellar reflex. These findings are most likely due to radiculopathy of which of the following nerve roots?
A 37-year-old female with a past medical history of obesity presented to the emergency room with a severe headache and visual disturbances. The funduscopic exam shows bilateral papilledema. An MRI of the brain shows an empty sella and MRV was normal. A lumbar puncture was performed. The opening pressure was 38 and there were no WBCs or RBCs appreciated in the CSF. What is the most appropriate therapy for her disease?
A patient with a history of a right shoulder anterior dislocation comes to the clinic with the chief complaint of right arm numbness. On examination, there is a loss of sensation to light touch on the lateral portion of the upper arm. Based on the sensory disturbance, which of the following nerves is most likely injured?
A 6-year-old developmentally normal male presents after experiencing an episode of jerking of the right side of his mouth and inability to speak lasting 2 minutes. The patient is now back to baseline and has an EEG performed. Based on this clinical picture, which of the following abnormalities would you most expect to see on the EEG?
Which direction are the patient’s eyes moving at the points marked by the green circles?
Which of the following is the most classic finding of early inclusion body myositis?
A 30-year-old woman presents to the clinic with severe headaches requesting treatment because she “can’t live with this pain”. Episodes are left-sided, occur multiple times a day, and last about 20 minutes each. During episodes, she will also have eye tearing and rhinorrhea. What is the appropriate therapy?
Which of the following blood vessels that supply the thalamus is the only one to branch off of the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) instead of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA)?
A 65-year-old right-handed man presents with an acute onset of aphasia. CT scan of the head was normal but the MRI revealed multifocal small acute and subacute ischemic strokes in multiple vascular territories. A cerebral angiogram was performed as part of the diagnostic workup. Based on the clinical history and imaging provided what is the most likely diagnosis?
A 47-year-old man with a history of bilateral cataract surgery at the age of 20 presents to the clinic for evaluation of progressive unsteadiness and cognitive decline. His father and older brother reportedly had similar symptoms in their early adulthood as well. On exam, there is notable dysmetria and gait ataxia. There were also abnormal soft-tissue masses appreciated near the Achilles tendons bilaterally. Which of the following is most likely to be abnormal in this patient blood?
A 50-year-old male farmer presents to the emergency department with diarrhea, steatorrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, and joint pain in his shoulders and hips. He also displays constant rhythmic eye movements and repetitive facial muscle contractions. Intestinal biopsy reveals macrophage inclusions that positively stain with periodic acid-Schiff. What is the most likely etiology of this patient’s presentation?
The following is a sample of gray matter stained with Anti-NeuN and viewed under a low-power microscope lens. The pathology marked by the blue arrow is most consistent with which of the following causes of epilepsy?