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A 29-year-old female taking oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), but with no other known medical history, presents for a 3-week course of progressive headache. Given her risk factors, the following imaging study is performed. An occlusion within which of the following structures is seen?
Neural tube defects will develop at which point in fetal development?
Which of the following medications is the most appropriate pharmacologic agent for paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia?
A 44-year-old woman who was recently started on a new abortive therapy for her migraines presents with a new type of headache described as more severe and with an extremely rapid onset. CT head imaging revealed no acute findings and lumbar puncture testing was unremarkable. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease causes axonal polyneuropathy?
A 19-year-old woman presents for evaluation of paroxysmal episodes of vertigo, spasticity, diplopia, and ataxia. She reports that her father and one of her two sisters have similar ailments. At the time of the appointment, there was no diplopia or ataxia appreciated. Myokymia was appreciated on electromyography. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 48-year-old woman presents with acute onset of seizures, myoclonus, ataxia, and rapidly progressive dementia. CSF analysis reveals an elevated protein and mild pleocytosis. Brain MRI with and without contrast is unremarkable. Further investigation reveals elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Which of the following is the most appropriate therapy?
A critically ill 1-month-old has cerebral vessel imaging performed and shown below. Which of the following comorbid medical issues are likely present?
A 34-year-old woman comes to the emergency room with complaints of neck stiffness, headaches that are worse on standing, and diplopia. An MRI brain with contrast shows diffuse dural enhancement. Which of the following findings is also likely to be present in this case?
Which of the following genetic abnormalities is most common in the pathology shown in the image below?
A 45-year-old female with a recent diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, based on MRI and CSF analysis, is referred to your clinic to discuss possible disease-modifying therapies. You review the clinical history with her and she states that for the past 18 months she has experienced progressive right upper and lower extremity weakness. She denies any periods of transient improvement or dramatic worsening of symptoms. Based on this clinical history, what is the most appropriate disease-modifying therapy for this patient?
Which of the following is the most accurate statement regarding driving with epilepsy?
You are caring for a patient with Lewy body dementia who is having difficulty with myoclonic jerks. Which of the following is considered the first-line treatment for cortical myoclonus?
Which of the following is most likely to show temporal dispersion of the action potential?
A 40-year-old man comes into the clinic with headaches. He has stabbing pain around the left temple that occurs numerous times during the day. The pain lasts 10-30 seconds at a time. He says he has excessive tearing from the left eye during these episodes. What is the most appropriate therapy?
Which of the following medications is the first-line treatment for trigeminal neuralgia?
The pathology shown in the image below is most likely which of the following?
What is the likely etiology of the findings appreciated on the imaging below?
A 10-year-old female from the northeastern United Stated presents to the ED with her mother after a one-week history of difficulties in school and difficulties with speech. Her mother states that two weeks ago the patient had a rash on her leg and viral-like symptoms that went away within a few days. Then, this past week the patient’s teacher reported that she was having difficulties with attention in school and was performing very poorly on assignments. Her mother also confirmed that the patient has been more forgetful and is also slurring her speech. An MRI of the brain was performed and it showed multifocal white matter lesions. Of note, the patient likes to spend a lot of time outdoors and recently went on a camping trip. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
An 18-year-old male is brought to the clinic by his mother due to a 3-month history of personality changes. She states that during this time he has become increasingly rude and aggressive toward her. She also states that he was fired from his summer job last week after trying to steal from his boss. His father’s medical history is unknown. On examination, the patient has an ataxic gait and bradykinesia. His mental status exam shows impaired memory and language regression. Genetic testing of this patient would most likely show what?
A patient with right leg weakness presents to the neuromuscular lab for electromyography. The image below depicts a spontaneous finding while evaluating the right tibialis anterior muscle. This finding is most consistent with which of the following?
The medulla is an embryologic derivative of which of the following structures?
Which of the following botulinum serotypes cleaves synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP)-25.
Match the phase of the Valsalva maneuver with its associated physiology.
A 47-year-old former football player with a history of diabetes and hypertension presents to the EMG lab with left upper extremity weakness and pain. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies were normal. An EMG was performed and shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 19-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department after a rollover motor vehicle accident. On arrival, she was intubated and sedated for respiratory failure secondary to pneumothorax. Examination revealed intact brain stem reflexes and decreased spontaneous movement of the left side of her body. Her axial head CT scan is shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 30-year-old male presents to the clinic with a fifteen-year history of progressive weakness and sensory loss in his lower extremities. Examination shows hammertoes, high arches on his feet, 4/5 ankle dorsiflexion strength, and a mild decrease in sensation to pinprick in the 1st toes bilaterally. Upon questioning he mentions that his father had similar-looking feet and started to use a cane in his fifties. Which of the following genetic mutations may be the cause of the patient’s symptoms?
A 38-year-old man presents with a 1-year history of neck pain and left upper extremity weakness. The symptoms started insidiously, and have slowly worsened over time. A sagittal cervical spine MRI is shown below (Left: T2 without contrast. Right: T1 with contrast). Which of the following is the most likely cause of his symptoms?
Which of the following is not typically treated with indomethacin?
Which of the following arteries supplies the lumbar spinal cord?