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Patients with Alzheimer’s disease usually have a loss of cholinergic neurons from which of the following regions?
Which of the following is the mechanism of action of ocrelizumab?
The lesion shown below (blue arrow) is most consistent with which of the following pathologies?
Which of the following primary CNS tumors carries the highest risk of disseminated metastatic disease through the spine via CSF seeding?
A 65-year-old female presents to the clinic with painless double vision that started abruptly 5 days ago. On exam, pupils are equal, round, and reactive to light bilaterally. On extraocular muscle testing, the left eye has a normal range of motion but the right eye is unable to adduct or elevate. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
Which of the following vessels that supply the thalamus originates from the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery and supplies the lateral geniculate nucleus?
A 67-year-old male presents with the inability to reach for objects in his visual field. He states that he can see the object, but on the clinical exam he can not grasp it accurately. He also is unable to see multiple objects at once. He has a past medical history of atrial fibrillation and an ischemic injury is suspected. A brain MRI would show which of the following areas of the brain is/are affected?
A 4-year-old boy is brought to the pediatric neurology clinic with 4 months history of progressive dysarthria, ataxia, and abnormal limb movements. His mother says that the patient’s right side of the mouth seems to be pulled to the right and his left arm always seems to be pulled up towards his chest. An MRI was performed and shown below. What is the likely diagnosis?
You are reading a visual evoked potential (VEP) that has a prolonged P100 latency in the right eye and a normal latency in the left eye. Of the following, which pathology is most consistent with this study?
A patient with medically refractory epilepsy secondary to mesial temporal sclerosis recently had a right hemispheric anterior temporal lobectomy. He is complaining of a post-operative visual field deficit. Which of the following is most likely to be appreciated on the exam?
A 57-year-old woman with a past medical history of hypothyroidism was referred to the EMG lab with a one-year history of right-hand numbness. Based on the EMG data shown below, what is the most appropriate next step in medical management?
A 15-year-old boy with a past medical history of ADHD presents with odd behaviors including shrugging his shoulders and blinking frequently. His mother also states that he used to have some similar movements when he was younger, but they seem to have worsened since starting a new medication for his ADHD. Which of the following medications is most likely responsible for his symptoms?
Which of the following is most strongly associated with an increased risk of seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure?
A 30-year-old male presents with progressive dysphagia over the last month. Head imaging is completed and shown below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following headaches is most likely to respond to a combination of caffeine and lithium?
A patient with a past medical history of Parkinson’s disease is brought to the emergency room with the chief complaint of a severe headache, chest pain, and shortness of breath. His blood pressure on arrival was 196/122 mmHg. The patient states that he was in his usual state of health earlier in the day but started feeling unwell after attending a wine and cheese pairing event at a local winery. Which of the following medications is likely the cause of the patient’s symptoms?
A 15-day-old female is evaluated in the NICU after being born to a G2P2 mother. On exam, the infant is jaundiced. Abdominal ultrasound shows severe hepatosplenomegaly. CT scan of the head shows hydrocephalus and periventricular calcifications, and a fundoscopic exam shows bilateral chorioretinitis. Serological testing is most likely to show infection with which organism?
Which of the following diseases does not contribute to the pathology appreciated in this pathology image?
A 20-year-old female presents with complaints of 2 years of excessive daytime sleepiness and brain fog during the day. She reports sleeping is unrefreshing. In the morning she has difficulty waking up and feels an uncontrollable desire to go back to sleep. She denies difficulty staying asleep during the night and denies episodes of suddenly collapsing in stressful situations. She had a polysomnogram where she slept for 12 hours, had 4 apneic episodes per hour, had REM sleep onset latency of 7 minutes, and did not have sleep-onset REM periods (SOREMPs). Which of the following is her diagnosis?
A 29-year-old man with a 10-pack-year smoking history comes into the clinic with a severe headache. The pain surrounds his right eye and is associated with a runny nose, excessive tearing, and a “droopy eyelid.” He describes the pain as stabbing that usually lasts about 30 minutes and occurs every day after he eats dinner. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following antiepileptic drugs can induce myoclonic seizures?
Identify the pathologic finding marked by the red arrow.
A 57-year-old male with an unknown past medical history who recently immigrated from South Asia presents to the emergency department with new-onset skin lesions on his arms. On physical exam, the patient has two large, erythematous lesions with a clearly demarcated but flat border. The nerves around these lesions appear thickened. Biopsy of the lesions shows epithelioid cell granulomas and few bacteria. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 36-year-old woman was recently started on natalizumab for management of her multiple sclerosis. Over the next several months, she develops progressive weakness, incoordination, and speech disturbances before passing away six months after initiating natalizumab. Testing for which of the following pathogens should have been performed prior to natalizumab initiation to prevent this outcome?
A 49-year-old female has had a 6-month history of difficulty swallowing and weight loss. On examination, she has generalized muscle loss. On strength examination, she has 3/5 proximally and 4/5 distally in the bilateral upper extremities. There are normal tongue movements and a normal jaw jerk reflex. Deep tendon reflexes in the bilateral upper extremities are normal and sensation is intact. An EMG is performed and outlined below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following findings would most likely be found on histopathological analysis of the lesion shown in the image below?
Which of the following is present in the image shown below?
A 59-year-old woman presents to the emergency room with dizziness and left ear fullness. The symptom is described as a spinning sensation that is present at rest and with action. She has had comparable events before, which have self-resolved over time. The patient is ataxic on the exam and has difficulty hearing out of her left ear. An MRI brain with and without contrast was normal. Which of the following is the most appropriate line of therapy that will decrease the risk of future recurrent events?
A 24-year-old female in her third trimester of pregnancy, with no other past medical history, presents with complaints of 1-2 times monthly episodes of sudden onset severe room spinning, nausea, and vomiting for 3 months. They happen randomly and are not associated with head movement. During an episode, sounds and bright light seem to bother her more. She denies motor weakness or hearing change. Her spells resolve after about 1 hour. She endorses she has had bad headaches in the past, but not with these episodes. She endorses she gets car sick easily. On neurologic examination, she has no focal findings, and her vitals are within normal limits. She had an MRI brain with MRA and MR Venogram, all of which were unremarkable. Which is the most likely etiology?
An EMG/NCS is performed for the evaluation of subacute left upper extremity weakness in an adult female. There are fibrillation potentials in the deltoid and biceps on EMG and decreased median and radial sensory amplitudes on NCS. Which portion of the brachial plexus was injured?
A 5-month-old female is brought to the emergency room by her parents because of an episode concerning for possible seizure. On arrival, the patient appears back to her clinical baseline neurologically. Several hypomelanotic lesions are appreciated while performing a skin check. The mother notes that her older brother has similar skin findings. An EEG is performed and shown below. A typical event was captured that correlated with an electrodecrement of cortical activity on EEG.
Based on the child’s diagnosis, what is the most appropriate therapy?
The pathology shown in the image below is likely secondary to which of the following?
The pathologic findings on the image shown below can be secondary to bilateral mononeuropathies involving which of the following nerves?
Which of the following findings is depicted in the catheter angiogram shown?
Which of the following seizure characteristics are typically seen in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy?
Sleep spindles are first seen at what gestational age (GA)?
Immunohistochemical staining with GFAP is particularly useful in identifying which of the following cell types?
A nine-month-old boy with no significant past medical history is brought to the clinic by his mother because of paroxysmal episodes of unknown etiology. His mother states that since he was six months old, she noticed that his head would intermittently tilt to his right lateral side when he woke up. His head tilt would always disappear during sleep. During these “attacks” the patient would become irritable and would occasionally vomit. The symptoms last up to 48 hours before resolution. Imaging of the brain and EEG do not demonstrate any abnormalities. Which of the following is the most likely cause of these symptoms?