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A 45-year-old man suffered a cardiac arrest after a heroin overdose. He received 30 minutes of CPR with an eventual return of spontaneous circulation. After being cooled per post-arrest protocol the patient was rewarmed. 48 hours after being warmed the patient remained in a persistent comatose state with minimal brainstem reflexes. To evaluate the degree of hypoxic-ischemic injury an EEG was ordered. Which of the following EEG patterns carries the worst prognosis after a hypoxic-ischemic injury?
An 83-year-old male with a past medical history of PD is brought to the clinic with his daughter due to worsening behavior at his nursing home. He has become easily agitated with staff and will occasionally yell out at night at “people trying to rob him”. His daughter asks which treatments could be used to help with these symptoms. Which of the following antipsychotic agents would be the best treatment options?
A 90-year-old woman presents to the emergency room with an acute change in mental status. On examination, she is alert but is not answering questions or following commands. Speech is fluent, but not interpretable. Comprehension is severely impaired. Interestingly she was able to repeat full sentences without much difficulty. Which of the following is the most likely territory of ischemic damage?
A 77-year-old male presents with a 1-year history of worsening bradykinesia, recurrent falls, and a shuffling gait. Past medical history is significant for REM-sleep behavior disorder and diet-controlled hypertension. Neurologic examination reveals a tremor at rest that improves with movement, along with bilateral upper-limb spasticity. Impaired dopaminergic signaling is most likely to be found in which of the following locations?
An overweight 24-year-old woman complains of neck stiffness, daily headaches, and blurred vision. She has disc edema on fundoscopic exam and slit-like ventricles on MRI brain. A spinal tap was performed and confirmed the diagnosis. Which of the following is the first-line therapy?
Which of the following findings is most typically seen with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder?
A 65-year-old male presents with an acute onset of back pain, bilateral lower extremity weakness, and bladder incontinence. A physical exam reveals decreased strength and loss of pain and temperature sensation in both legs. Vibratory and light touch sensation and proprioception remain intact. A lesion to which of the following arteries would most likely be responsible for this clinical presentation?
A 6-year-old male is brought to the pediatrician with multiple-decaying teeth since 2-3 years of age with no associated pain. He was born via C-section at term with no complications. Past medical history is significant for developmental delay and intellectual impairment. On physical exam, the patient is short-statured and obese with hypogonadism. His parents state that he has always been an overeater. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 24-year-old female with a past medical history of major depressive disorder with her last major depressive episode 6 months ago is brought to the emergency room by her boyfriend because of unusual behavior. For the past 4 weeks, the patient has had bizarre delusions, auditory hallucinations, and disorganized speech. She believes that her boyfriend is having a sexual relationship with a character from one of the early morning soap operas on television. Outside of her psychiatric symptoms, her neurologic examination is normal. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 38-year-old female presents to the clinic with episodes of facial pain. She reports episodes of sudden severe and debilitating sharp pain on her right face lasting a few seconds to a couple of minutes. These seem to be triggered by eating or lightly touching the face. Outside of these episodes, she is pain-free. She does not endorse any associated rhinorrhea, lacrimation, or facial flushing. What is the likely cause of her symptoms?
A 49-year-old male with a chronic history of myalgias was referred to the EMG lab with progressive muscle weakness. Based on the EMG table shown below what is the most likely diagnosis?
A 64-year-old woman is brought to the office by her husband for changes in her speech pattern. While neurocognitive testing was largely unremarkable, her spontaneous speech appears effortful, halting, and laced with grammatical errors. MRI of the brain revealed left posterior frontal and insular atrophy. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 55-year-old male presents with progressive worsening new headache over several months. He did not wish to seek medical attention but now presents because his family reports his facial expressions “look different”. On exam, he has impaired upgaze, light near dissociation, and convergence retraction nystagmus. An MRI is done and shows a lesion. Where is the lesion likely located?
What is the earliest NCS/EMG abnormality found in AIDP?