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A 43-year-old man with obesity and hypertension presents with complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness, gasping awakenings, and witnessed periods of not breathing during sleep. A polysomnogram is performed and confirms the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. What feature would point to a central rather than obstructive cause?
A four-day-old, full-term male with an uncomplicated vaginal delivery is brought urgently by his mother to the clinic after an episode concerning for possible seizure. His mother states that this morning when she accidentally dropped a pile of dishes on the floor, the child “tensed up”. She states that both his upper and lower limbs became rigid and he had violent jerking movements of all limbs for approximately 40 seconds. This patient’s condition is most likely due to a mutation in which of the following genes?
An 8-year-old boy is brought to the neurology clinic due to an 18-month history of repetitive, involuntary movements of his face and body. His mother states that he has been bullied at school because of it, which is causing him significant distress and anxiety. His birth history and developmental history are normal. On physical exam, the patient has excessive blinking and occasionally jerks his right shoulder upwards at rest. The physical exam is otherwise within normal limits. which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 48-year-old male with a history of a motor vehicle accident and right leg tibial plateau fracture was referred to a neurologist because of right leg weakness. He states he often catches his right foot while walking and stubs his toes when he walks barefoot. On examination, there is decreased strength with both ankle dorsiflexion and foot inversion. Weakness of which of the following muscles is responsible for the patient’s symptoms?
A 58-year-old male presents with a few months of progressive symptoms. He reports limb rigidity, left greater than right, as well as neck stiffness. On exam, you note bradykinesia and cervical dystonia. He does not have a tremor. Speech is hesitant, and there is evidence of speech apraxia. You also note that the patient has trouble controlling the location of his left hand in space, and he grabs for your stethoscope without realizing it.
What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 34-year-old female with poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes presents to the ED with a 3-day history of sinus and orbital pain, fever, and headache. Four hours ago, she was feeling confused and dizzy, which prompted her to come to the hospital. A head CT scan is performed and it shows erosion of the nasal bones and obliteration of the sinuses. Biopsy of antral tissue shows fungal hyphae. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Identify the pathologic finding marked by the red arrow.
Which of the following enzymes are deficient with Fabry Disease?
Which of the following forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease causes axonal polyneuropathy?
A patient with Alzheimer’s disease donates their brain for research on neurodegenerative disease. A histopathologic, H&E-stained, sample of his brain tissue is shown below. What is the structure marked by the black arrow?
Which of the following anatomic structures is responsible for the perception of superficial light touch?
A 56-year-old right-handed man is brought to the emergency room for new-onset aphasia. On exam, he cannot write, perform simple calculations, name his own fingers, and cannot distinguish with accuracy between his right and left sides. A lesion in which area can explain his symptoms?
Concentrically-layered Schwann-cell processes (“onion bulbs”) are seen surrounding nerve fibers on nerve biopsy in which of the following diseases?
A newborn male is evaluated in the NICU for a lesion on his lower back. He was born to a mother with no prenatal care at 37 weeks gestation. Imaging of his lower back shows the meninges and spinal cord herniated through the defect, covered in a membrane. His condition could have most likely been prevented through prenatal supplemental with what?
Which of the following cranial nerve(s) transverses through the structure (blue arrow) shown below?