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A 28-year-old caucasian male was last seen well at 9:00 AM when he got into a verbal argument with his girlfriend. When the girlfriend returned from work at 5:00 PM, she found the patient on the floor of the garage altered, and states he “smelled unusual”. In the emergency department, the patient is disoriented but arousable with much effort. He complains of a headache and blurred vision, and he appears uncomfortable with a respiratory rate of 40. You send stat labs and they are listed below. What treatment should you administer immediately?
ABG: 7.18 pH, PCO2 = 28, PO2 = 118
Electrolytes: Na 135 mEq/L, K 5.0 mEq/L, Cl 105 mEq/L, HCO3 15 mEq/L
A 62-year-old man complains of 5 years of vivid dreams. At times this involves punching and kicking, which has hurt his wife. He undergoes a polysomnogram and there is no sleep-disordered breathing and the EEG is normal. What would be the best first-line medication to treat this behavior?
A 73-year-old male with a past medical history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and atrial fibrillation presented to the emergency room with an acute onset of language difficulties. On examination, his speech is nonsensical but fluent. He is unable to understand commands, but repetition is intact. Which of the following best describes this patient’s aphasia?
Which of the following has the longest half-life?
Which of the following is the mechanism of action of riluzole?
An abnormal breathing pattern described as irregular inspiratory phases and variable intervals of apnea can localize to damage to which of the following regions along the neuraxis?
A 58-year-old male with a prolonged history of myasthenia gravis was recently discharged 4 months ago from the hospital with his second myasthenic crisis requiring transient intubation. Since that hospitalization, he was on prednisone, tapered down to 40 mg a day, cyclosporine and pyridostigmine. He comes to the ED today after having a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the ED, the patient is post-ictal and has vision deficits on exam. MRI of the brain shows T2 hyperintensities on the posterior cerebral hemispheres. Which of the following is the likely etiology of this clinical presentation?
A 57-year-old navy veteran with a history of PTSD presents with a 2-year history of progressive, asymmetric weakness. The patient states that symptoms started in his left arm. Six months later he started to have falls due to tripping over his right foot. His neurological examination shows weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles of the left arm, ⅖ strength on dorsiflexion of the right ankle, and no sensory disturbances. Reflexes were mute in the left upper extremity and there were several beats of clonus at the right ankle. Fasciculations were present in the tongue, right gastrocnemius, and left tibialis anterior. An EMG is recommended for diagnosis. Which of the following EMG findings are most likely seen in this patient?
A 30-year-old male presents to the emergency room with weakness in his bilateral lower extremities. On arrival, he was hypertensive and bradycardic. 2/5 strength is appreciated in his bilateral lower extremities. A loss of pinprick sensation is also appreciated from his lower extremities, but proprioception and vibratory sensation are intact. These findings are most likely secondary to a lesion of which of the following blood vessels?
A 19-year-old boy presents with his mother for complaints of frequent eye blinking and shoulder-shrugging spells occurring multiple times a day. He also has frequent episodes of humming a three-note tune randomly throughout the day. He has had these problems since he was 17. He had an MRI brain and EEG that were negative. He takes no medications. The symptoms do not impact his activities of daily living, but he does feel embarrassed by the symptoms. He went to cognitive behavioral therapy for this for a year and has not seen a benefit. Which of the following is a first-line medication for this patient?
A 20-year-old male presents with severe burns on his hands after accidentally touching a stove. Neurology was consulted because the family noted that the patient did not initially pull away from the hot stove as one would expect. Physical exam shows decreased sensation of pain and temperature along the back and arms, with intact strength. T2 sagittal MRI of the cervical spine is shown below. Which of the following is commonly associated with the pathology shown?
A 45-year-old man comes into the ED complaining of a severe headache. A spinal tap shows xanthochromia. The patient is treated immediately and spends the next two weeks in the neurocritical care unit. On day nine of his stay, his speech becomes slurred and the neurologist notices that the left side of his face is drooping. What is the class of drugs that could have potentially prevented these findings?
Which of the following findings is most typically seen with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder?
A 38-year-old female presents to the clinic with episodes of facial pain. She reports episodes of sudden severe and debilitating sharp pain on her right face lasting a few seconds to a couple of minutes. These seem to be triggered by eating or lightly touching the face. Outside of these episodes, she is pain-free. She does not endorse any associated rhinorrhea, lacrimation, or facial flushing. What is the likely cause of her symptoms?
An 83-year-old male with a past medical history of PD is brought to the clinic with his daughter due to worsening behavior at his nursing home. He has become easily agitated with staff and will occasionally yell out at night at “people trying to rob him”. His daughter asks which treatments could be used to help with these symptoms. Which of the following antipsychotic agents would be the best treatment options?