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A 3-day-old male infant is evaluated in the NICU for fever and focal seizures. He was born at 39 weeks gestation via uncomplicated vaginal delivery and had good APGAR scores. Brain imaging shows periventricular calcifications and severe ventriculomegaly. Auditory testing also demonstrates bilateral hearing impairment. What is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
A 35-year-old Dominican Republic immigrant is brought to the emergency room for a first-time seizure. He is currently back to baseline and has a normal neurological exam. His only complaint is a multiple-month history of chronic headaches. A head CT scan is performed and shown below. Which of the following is the most likely etiology of his symptoms?
A 34-year-old schoolteacher presents to the emergency department with confusion and weakness. Her family reports they have been staying at their cabin for labor day weekend and the patient spent the whole time inside complaining of generalized fatigue, myalgia, headache, and light sensitivity. They felt she had “a cold” so they let her rest. This morning, Monday, she was found in her bed unable to move and confused.
On exam, she is disoriented. She has nuchal rigidity. On musculoskeletal exam, she has diffuse but left > right weakness in the limbs. Her reflexes are 0/4 in the bilateral ankle, knee, and brachioradialis, and 1+ in the bilateral biceps. The sensory exam is normal.
The serum glucose is 100. Lumbar puncture is performed and shows glucose 60, protein 55, RBC 1, and WBC 25, lymphocyte-predominant.
Which of the following is the most appropriate preventive measure for this condition?
A 47-year-old woman from the Caribbean presents to the clinic with a seven-year history of progressive difficulty with ambulation. The exam is notable for lower extremity spasticity. An MRI is ordered and shows atrophy of the spinal cord without other changes. The clinical and MRI findings for this patient are most likely secondary to which of the following infections?
A 45-year-old male with AIDs presents with headache and fever. His recent CD4 count was 80, and he does not take his HAART therapy or prophylaxis. You perform a brain MRI (shown below) and discover a contrast-enhancing lesion with much vasogenic edema. With concern for cancer, a biopsy is performed. It shows microglial nodules with encysted bradyzoites and tachyzoites. What is the treatment of choice?
The pathologic findings marked by the blue arrows in the image below are most likely which of the following?
What are the 3 most common causes of bacterial meningitis in neonates (0-1 months)?
The pathologic findings appreciated on this slide are secondary to which of the following pathologies?
A 15-day-old female is evaluated in the NICU after being born to a G2P2 mother. On exam, the infant is jaundiced. Abdominal ultrasound shows severe hepatosplenomegaly. CT scan of the head shows hydrocephalus and periventricular calcifications, and a fundoscopic exam shows bilateral chorioretinitis. Serological testing is most likely to show infection with which organism?
A 10-year-old female from the northeastern United Stated presents to the ED with her mother after a one-week history of difficulties in school and difficulties with speech. Her mother states that two weeks ago the patient had a rash on her leg and viral-like symptoms that went away within a few days. Then, this past week the patient’s teacher reported that she was having difficulties with attention in school and was performing very poorly on assignments. Her mother also confirmed that the patient has been more forgetful and is also slurring her speech. An MRI of the brain was performed and it showed multifocal white matter lesions. Of note, the patient likes to spend a lot of time outdoors and recently went on a camping trip. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
A 65-year-old female presents to the Emergency Room with a 2-month history of altered mental status and jerking. On examination, you appreciate an exaggerated startle response. Her MRI was shown below. Which of the following statements is true?
A 38-year-old man with a prolonged history of intravenous drug use, HIV, and poor compliance with HAART therapy is brought to the hospital by police after being seen wandering across a busy street intersection. His last CD4 count was 180 cells/microliter 8 months ago. Vitals appear within normal limits on arrival. Neurological examination shows inattention, poor short-term memory, and difficulties with abstract thought. An MRI is performed and shown below. What is the likely etiology of his symptoms?
The pathology shown in the image below is most consistent with which of the following?
A 4-month-old infant of Amish parents is evaluated in the emergency department for an acute onset of weakness, poor feeding, and irritability that started 2 days ago. Neurologic examination of the child was impressive for ptosis, decreased tone, generalized weakness, a poor suck reflex, and mydriasis. MRI of the brain was normal. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
A 37-year-old woman treated for herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis two months ago returns to the ER with new personality changes, seizures, and orofacial dyskinesia. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 56-year-old man with a history of a kidney transplant, on tacrolimus, presented to the hospital with a 2-week history of progressive confusion and expressive aphasia. An MRI brain with and without contrast was performed and shown below. A brain biopsy was performed and showed microglial nodules with encysted bradyzoites and tachyzoites. Which of the following is the most appropriate therapy?
A 50-year-old male farmer presents to the emergency department with diarrhea, steatorrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, and joint pain in his shoulders and hips. He also displays constant rhythmic eye movements and repetitive facial muscle contractions. Intestinal biopsy reveals macrophage inclusions that positively stain with periodic acid-Schiff. What is the most likely etiology of this patient’s presentation?
A 37-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presents to the emergency department with a three-day history of progressive headache, fever, and double vision. Examination shows bilateral proptosis, peri-ocular erythema, and ophthalmoplegia. CT of the head was ordered and showed bony destruction of the sinuses. Based on the most likely diagnosis, which of the following is the most appropriate treatment?
A 50-year-old female presents with altered mental status. Her family states that over the past couple of weeks, the patient has had progressive memory loss, mood changes, and poor judgment. On examination, the patient has involuntary arm movements and an exaggerated startle response. Brain MRI, DWI sequence, is shown below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 28-year-old female is brought to the emergency room by her husband because of behavioral changes and memory issues over the last 4 days. Right after the MRI, shown below, the patient had a tonic-clonic seizure. Based on the limited clinical history and imaging provided, which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A newborn is evaluated in the NICU hours after birth to a G1P1 mother with poor prenatal care at 36 weeks. Upon evaluation, the newborn is macrocephalic, jaundiced, and hypotonic. She also has a faint purpuric rash on her extremities and redness of both eyes. CT of the head shows periventricular and basal ganglia calcifications. This condition is likely caused by which of the following organisms?
A 78-year-old man presents to the ER with headache, fever, diplopia, and hiccups. MRI with the brain with and without contrast shows small contrast-enhancing abscesses in the brainstem, sparing supratentorial cerebral tissue. Which of the following infectious agents classically presents in this fashion?
A 14-year-old girl with no significant past medical history is brought to the clinic with a 1-week history of involuntary movements of the left side of her body. Her mother reports that 1 month ago, she experienced a week of fever, malaise, and fatigue, but they did not seek medical treatment at the time. On physical exam, the patient exhibits involuntary, irregular movements of her neck, left arm, and left leg, and generalized hypotonia. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 30-year-old female presents to the ER with a three-day history of progressive weakness, double vision, and slurred speech. The first symptoms appreciated were double vision and slurred speech, followed by weakness in the upper extremities. Symptoms then descended to involve the lower extremities. On examination, the patient had decreased tone, areflexia, mydriasis, and restricted extraocular movements bilaterally. A neuromuscular junction disorder is suspected. Based on the most likely diagnosis, which of the following would be seen in this patient’s neurodiagnostic testing?
A 12-year-old boy with no significant past medical history is admitted to the neurology service after presenting with acute-onset fever, personality changes, and difficulties with speech. His mother states that three days ago he also reported seeing bats and other wild animals running around his room. She decided to bring him to the hospital today after she noticed that he seemed more tired and was moving slower than normal. A lumbar puncture and MRI of the brain are ordered. The CSF shows elevated protein, elevated lymphocyte and red blood cell counts, and normal glucose. MRI of the brain is shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 40-year-old man from Honduras presents to the emergency room after experiencing a first-time seizure. CT head showed multiple calcified intraparenchymal lesions. Physical examination in the emergency room was unremarkable except for the presence of multiple subcutaneous nodules. A biopsy of one of these nodules was completed and microscopic imaging of the lesion is shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
What anatomical structure is the most common location for a Mycobacterium tuberculosis-related CNS infection?
Which of the following findings is most typically seen with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder?
What is the benefit of using glucocorticoids in the treatment of bacterial meningitis?
A 38-year-old man with a past medical history of HIV, depression, and asthma presents after experiencing a first-time seizure. He was last seen normal about 45 minutes ago by his husband, who witnessed him seizing for about 10 minutes. A CTH is performed and normal. A lumbar puncture is performed and reveals the findings below. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
A 12-day-old male is brought to the pediatrician by his mother with a two-day history of rash. The child was born full-term to a G2P2 mother with good APGAR scores. On physical exam, the pediatrician notes that the child has a pink, crusting, maculopapular rash over his buttocks, thighs, and soles of his feet. She states that a week after his birth he had the “sniffles” and a lot of white discharge from his nose. On exam, there is hepatomegaly and generalized lymphadenopathy. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
A 45-year-old male with a history of IV drug use, HIV, and medication non-compliance is admitted to the hospital with a two-week history of headache, fever, malaise, and double vision. His most recent CD4 count was 180. Lumbar punction is performed. CSF analysis with India ink strain shows encapsulated yeast. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
A 14-year-old girl with no significant past medical history presents with an acute presentation of left-sided weakness. CTH was negative but MRI shows an acute lacunar ischemic stroke in the right hemisphere. An angiogram was performed which revealed segmental arterial constriction followed by segments of arterial dilation in multiple intracranial vessels. Which of the following is the most likely etiology of her ischemic stroke?
A 30-year-old female with no known past medical history comes to the emergency room after a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Her friend says that she has been behaving oddly over the past couple of days and has been complaining of a headache. An axial T2 brain MRI is shown below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following infectious agents is most likely responsible for the pathology seen in the image below?
A 57-year-old male with an unknown past medical history who recently immigrated from South Asia presents to the emergency department with new-onset skin lesions on his arms. On physical exam, the patient has two large, erythematous lesions with a clearly demarcated but flat border. The nerves around these lesions appear thickened. Biopsy of the lesions shows epithelioid cell granulomas and few bacteria. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 39-year-old homeless man presents to the emergency room with fever, headache, and meningismus which has slowly progressed over the past 3 weeks. The patient is lethargic and agitated when aroused. Neurological examination reveals an isolated left abducens nerve palsy. Funduscopic examination reveals blurring of the optic discs. An MRI is performed and shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 34-year-old female with poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes presents to the ED with a 3-day history of sinus and orbital pain, fever, and headache. Four hours ago, she was feeling confused and dizzy, which prompted her to come to the hospital. A head CT scan is performed and it shows erosion of the nasal bones and obliteration of the sinuses. Biopsy of antral tissue shows fungal hyphae. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 40-year-old with AIDs (CD4 count 60) presents to the emergency room with a 2-month history of progressive headache, confusion, and left sided weakness. MRI brain with and without contrast was performed and it showed ring-enhancing lesions in the basal ganglia and the right frontal lobe. A brain biopsy was performed and shown below. Which is the most likely diagnosis?
What is the most appropriate therapy for the infection depicted in the pathology slide below?
A 45-year-old man with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes and COPD presents with a 1-week history of fever, headache, and dizziness. Additionally, for the past two days, he has had intractable vomiting. MRI of the brain with and without contrast is shown below. What is the most appropriate treatment for this patient?
A 24-year-old healthy male with recent right-sided otitis media complicated by mastoiditis presents to the ER with a first-time seizure. On examination the patient is somnolent and febrile, MRI brain shows a right temporal lobe intraparenchymal mass with a solid rim of contrast enhancement and surrounding vasogenic edema, what is the most likely etiology?