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A 25-year-old male with a history of sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus has an MRI brain ordered as part of his workup (see below). A genetic syndrome is suspected. Which of the following is also likely to be found on imaging?
A 12-year-old boy with no significant past medical history is admitted to the neurology service after presenting with acute-onset fever, personality changes, and difficulties with speech. His mother states that three days ago he also reported seeing bats and other wild animals running around his room. She decided to bring him to the hospital today after she noticed that he seemed more tired and was moving slower than normal. A lumbar puncture and MRI of the brain are ordered. The CSF shows elevated protein, elevated lymphocyte and red blood cell counts, and normal glucose. MRI of the brain is shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 68-year-old female presents to your clinic with the chief complaint of daytime somnolence. She endorses an unpleasant feeling in her lower extremities while trying to go to bed which prevents her from sleeping. Moving her limbs gives transient relief. What is the most appropriate first diagnostic test?
Which of the following structures is well myelinated in a full-term (40-week) infant?
Which of the following structures are not supplied by the posterior cerebral artery (PCA)?
Which of the following does this EEG tracing reveal?
A 71-year-old male with a history of mild ankle weakness and balance issues for the last 6 years is referred to the lab for a nerve conduction study (NCS). While performing the testing the patient states that a few of his siblings, as well as his father, had similar issues. Examination showed high arches and hammertoes. Based on the clinical history and NCS, what is the most likely diagnosis?
An 8-year-old girl presents with a progressive neurologic disorder. She initially was noted to have slow learning and clumsiness years ago. Shortly thereafter she developed a seizure disorder of unclear etiology. Now, she has been having progressive visual changes and worsened cognition and memory. To aid in the diagnosis, a muscle biopsy is done and shows autofluorescent curvilinear bodies. Her disorder falls into which category of disease?
A 58-year-old woman presents with worsening memory loss and a 50-pound weight gain over the past six months. On neurological exam, her Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) yields a score of 21/30. She has intact sensation, normal muscle bulk, tone, and strength, but diffuse hyporeflexia. Which of the following is most likely the diagnosis?
Which of the following blood vessels that supply the thalamus is the only one to branch off of the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) instead of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA)?
A 57-year-old woman with a past medical history of hypothyroidism was referred to the EMG lab with a one-year history of right-hand numbness. Based on the EMG data shown below, what is the most appropriate next step in medical management?
A 32-year-old male with a longstanding history of epilepsy secondary to mesial temporal sclerosis returns to your clinic. Despite being on appropriate doses of levetiracetam and valproic acid he continues to have 20 partial seizures and 4 generalized tonic-clonic seizures per month. Which of the following is the next best step in his care?
A 34-year-old woman comes to the emergency room with complaints of neck stiffness, headaches that are worse on standing, and diplopia. An MRI brain with contrast shows diffuse dural enhancement. Which of the following findings is also likely to be present in this case?
A 6-year-old male with a history of medically-refractory epilepsy (on three anti-seizure medications), and right-sided-hemiparesis, presents to the emergency room with a three-day history of continuous right facial twitching. Symptoms persist during sleep and have not responded to benzodiazepines. On examination, the patient has retained awareness despite the continuous facial movements. MRI brain was performed and shown below. Of the following, which is the most appropriate therapy to achieve seizure freedom?
A 7-year-old girl presents with 2 weeks of a right-sided unilateral throbbing headache. She has otherwise been healthy with no other symptoms and has no past medical history except for a light pink birthmark around her right eye. What is the most appropriate next step?