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This brain biopsy is representative of which of the following tumors?
An 11-year-old girl has a neurosurgical resection of a brain mass. You are consulted post-op day 2 due to speech decline progressing to complete mutism. She does not have any weakness on exam. What type of tumor was most likely resected?
All of the following medications have Level A or B evidence in migraine prophylaxis except:
A 4-year-old girl with multiple seizure types and intellectual disability has an EEG performed that shows 1.5 Hz to 2.5 Hz spike and wave discharges. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 40-year-old woman is hospitalized at an inpatient psychiatric facility for new behavioral disturbances and a suicide attempt. She has also begun to develop unusual movements of her bilateral upper extremities. The movements are non-rhythmic, high-amplitude, low-frequency, and involve the entire extremity. Her brain MRI is shown below. Which of the following may help to treat her movements?
Which of the following is the mechanism of action of entacapone?
A 16-year-old girl with no significant past medical history presents to the clinic with 2 episodes of syncope in the past month. She states that both of the episodes occurred while giving oral presentations in front of her class. She reports that she has been under a lot of stress lately because of a midterm paper and that her parents are going through a divorce, which has taken an emotional toll on her. Before each episode of syncope, she feels warm and starts to get lightheaded, and “sees stars”. Each episode of syncope lasts approximately 15 seconds, and she does not have any confusion after the episodes. The physical exam is within normal limits. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this patient’s syncope?
An 82-year-old woman donated her brain to science for post-mortem analysis (see below). Which of the following symptoms did the patient most likely experience before her passing?
Which of the following is most strongly associated with an increased risk of seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure?
A 19-year-old woman presents for evaluation of paroxysmal episodes of vertigo, spasticity, diplopia, and ataxia. She reports that her father and one of her two sisters have similar ailments. At the time of the appointment, there was no diplopia or ataxia appreciated. Myokymia was appreciated on electromyography. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 28-year-old woman with a history of intractable epilepsy presents to you for outpatient follow-up. She has been seizure-free on valproic acid and levetiracetam for the last 18 months. She reports a desire to become pregnant and asks if she has an increased risk of in-utero defects with her medications. Which of the following is the most appropriate answer to this question?
You are asked to see a 2-month-old infant girl with hypotonia, macroglossia, failure to thrive, and cardiomyopathy. Muscle biopsy is done due to the hypotonia, and shows PAS+ vacuolar myopathy. What is the best treatment approach?
Which of the following genetic abnormalities is most common in the pathology shown in the image below?
A 66-year-old female comes to the EMG lab with the chief complaint of muscle cramps in the right lower extremity. She started having symptoms after treatment with a cholesterol-lowering medication but despite discontinuing the medication her symptoms persisted. Reflexes are 2+ in upper and lower extremities, except 1+ in the right Achilles. Nerve conduction studies of both lower extremities were normal. An EMG was performed and shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 78-year-old male with a past medical history of depression and chronic alcohol use presents to the clinic with his wife for evaluation of a tremor. He states that the tremor is most severe at rest and disappears with purposeful movement. His wife states that he has been having slower movements over the past year. On physical exam, a “pill-rolling” resting tremor is noted in his left hand and the patient has difficulty with gait initiation and takes short steps when walking forward. Which dopaminergic pathway is most likely affected in this patient?