Welcome to our new feature: NEUROLOGY FLASHCARDS! Understanding is paramount, but unfortunately, one aspect of academic success does rely on simple memorization and repetition. In our new Neurology flashcards feature, we have taken the most commonly seen rote memory topics and “buzzwords” from neurology board and RITE* exams and made easy to use flashcards. These work on desktop, tablet, and mobile devices. This is a new feature, so please contact us if you see any issues! FLASHCARDS will be available for all chapters soon!

Ischemic Stroke

Components of ABCD2
Age, BP, Clinical Features, Duration, Diabetes
Age >60, BP ≥140/90, Clinical Feature (speech 1 point, hemiparesis 2 points), Duration (10-59 minutes is 1 point, ≥60 minutes is 2 points), Diabetes.
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Most common cause of stroke in the world
Large-artery atherosclerosis
The most common cause in the United States is cardioembolism (usually from atrial fibrillation).
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Mechanism of lacunar strokes
Lipohyalinosis of small vessels
A slow thickening of small vessel walls from years of poorly-controlled hypertension, diabetes, and/or smoking. Small punctate infarcts in deep brain structures are seen.
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Mutation causing CADASIL
NOTCH3 on chromosome 19
CADASIL is "cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy, with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy."
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"Puff of smoke" sign on cerebral angiogram
(abnormal vascular pattern of small net-like lenticulostriate vessels)
Moyamoya disease
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"Flame sign" or "string sign" on cerebral angiogram
(Progressive stenosis of carotid followed by a string of contrast)
Carotid dissection
Consider in a young person with stroke and history of neck trauma, chiropractics, or connective tissue disease (fibromuscular dysplasia, Marfan, EDS).

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