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An 8-year-old child with a past medical history of tuberous sclerosis presents urgently to the emergency room with lethargy. Funduscopic examination shows blurring of the optic discs. An MRI is performed and shown below. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
A 13-year-old boy presents with worsening severe headaches, nausea, vomiting, sleepiness, and confusion. The symptoms have been episodic, improved somewhat by lying recumbent. An MRI is done and shows the following. Which of the following is the best treatment option?
A 7-year-old boy with a history of right facial port-wine stain and mild developmental delay presents to the emergency room for seizures. An MRI brain is performed and the T1 with contrast sequence is shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 45-year-old female presents to the emergency room after experiencing a first-time seizure. On examination, she has some mild RUE weakness and anomia. MRI w/o contrast was performed and shown below. Which of the following is the likely cause of her lesion?
A 1p/19q co-deletion is associated with which of the following tumors?
Which of the following combinations of tumor genetic markers carry the most favorable prognostic value for anaplastic astrocytoma?
A 38-year-old man presents to the emergency room with a 2-month history of headaches, increased thirst, and decreased libido. CT scan of the head shows a suprasellar, partially calcified mass. An MRI was ordered thereafter and is shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following brain metastases has the highest risk of intracranial hemorrhage?
Which of the following findings would most likely be found on histopathological analysis of the lesion shown in the image below?
Optic nerve glioma is associated with which of the following diseases?
A 34-year-old female with a history of chronic daily headaches had an MRI performed as part of her workup. Her imaging is shown below. What is the likely etiology of the lesion shown?
A previously healthy two-year-old girl is brought to the clinic by her parents due to a 1-month history of difficulty walking. Her parents state that she began walking at 11 months old, but over the past month she has been falling more often. On physical exam, the patient demonstrates a broad-based gait and truncal ataxia. A CT scan of the brain is ordered and shows an intraparenchymal hyperdense mass in the cerebellum. She undergoes resection of the mass and a pathologic examination of the specimen shows anaplastic small round blue cells. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 13-year-old girl presents with headache, confusion, and polyuria. MRI brain with contrast shows a heterogeneous, contrast-enhancing lesion with mass effect located in the pineal region. A biopsy was performed. Immunohistochemical staining for cKIT of the biopsied tissue is shown below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A previously healthy 15-year-old male presents to the emergency room after experiencing a concussion while playing soccer. He is now back to baseline but to be thorough the ED physician orders an MRI which is shown below. What is the lesion shown in this MRI?
A 12-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type I is found to have a cerebellar cystic mass with a mural nodule and contrast-enhancing rim after presenting with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. The lesion was surgically resected and an example of the pathologic findings is shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?