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Which of the following would not constitute or be concerning for a HIPAA violation?
A 68-year-old man with left leg weakness and pain has an MRI performed to evaluate for a possible etiology. Her imaging is provided below. Based on the location of the lesion, which of the following muscles is most likely weak on examination?
Patients with Krabbe disease have a pathologic accumulation of which of the following?
A 30-year-old woman presents to the clinic with severe headaches requesting treatment because she “can’t live with this pain”. Episodes are left-sided, occur multiple times a day, and last about 20 minutes each. During episodes, she will also have eye tearing and rhinorrhea. What is the correct diagnosis?
A 4-year-old boy with a history of mild cerebral palsy comes to the clinic for his annual follow-up. Since last seen in the clinic the patient and family have noted that he has been having increased difficulties with his left leg. Most days he is able to ambulate with a hand-held mobility device. However, more recently family has noticed that he not walking as much as he used to. On examination, there is increased spasticity and hyperreflexia at the ankle. The right leg had normal strength and tone. What is the most appropriate therapy for the patient’s symptoms?
Which of the following arteries supplies the lumbar spinal cord?
A 26-year-old male suffered a spinal cord injury after falling from a ladder while hanging Christmas lights. In the ICU, he is experiencing episodes of sudden extreme increases in blood pressure, bradycardia, and diaphoresis. This condition is seen most commonly in lesions of which spinal cord levels?
Which of the following nuclei of the hypothalamus is involved in temperature regulation?
A 63-year-old female presents with a 6-month history of difficulty walking and muscle weakness. Neurologic examination reveals normal bulk but muscle fasciculations, bilateral extensor plantar responses, muscle spasticity, and hyperreflexia. Pathology at which of the following structures could explain these symptoms?
Match the phase of the Valsalva maneuver with its associated physiology.
A 32-year-old man with a past medical history of major depressive disorder is brought to the emergency department by his roommate who states that a few days ago the patient stopped taking his medications. Vital signs were within normal limits. On examination, the patient was non-verbal except for occasionally repeating words spoken by the examiner. He would not follow commands. When his arms were positioned off the bed they remained there for several minutes. CT head and CTA of the head and neck were normal. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in treatment?
A 10-year-old female from the northeastern United Stated presents to the ED with her mother after a one-week history of difficulties in school and difficulties with speech. Her mother states that two weeks ago the patient had a rash on her leg and viral-like symptoms that went away within a few days. Then, this past week the patient’s teacher reported that she was having difficulties with attention in school and was performing very poorly on assignments. Her mother also confirmed that the patient has been more forgetful and is also slurring her speech. An MRI of the brain was performed and it showed multifocal white matter lesions. Of note, the patient likes to spend a lot of time outdoors and recently went on a camping trip. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
Congenital muscular dystrophies are most often associated with which of the following pathophysiologies?
A 55-year-old female with a past medical history of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke with residual mild left arm weakness presents with headaches for a year. Episodes occur two to three times a month. The pain is unilateral and is associated with nausea and photophobia. During this episode, she is unable to go to work and over-the-counter anti-inflammatories have been ineffective. Physical exam and vitals are normal. Which abortive therapy is the most appropriate next step in management?
A 67-year-old woman suffers from sustained involuntary contraction causing her head to be forcibly turned to the right and significant discomfort. On exam, her left sternocleidomastoid is significantly hypertrophied. She receives treatment with Botulism Toxin A. Subtype A of botulism toxin acts to reduce synaptic action of acetylcholine by what mechanism?