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Mutations in the progranulin protein (gene PGRN) can serve as a biomarker for the risk of which of the following diseases?
Which of the following findings is depicted in the MR Angiogram shown below?
The lesion shown below is most consistent with which of the following pathologies?
Exposure to which of the following in utero is associated with low birth weight?
Which of the following is the mechanism of action of tetrabenazine?
Which of the following vessels that supply the thalamus originates from the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery and supplies the medial geniculate nucleus?
A patient with newly-diagnosed early state amyotrophic lateralized sclerosis (ALS) presents to your multidisciplinary clinic for the first time. After discussing the effectiveness and side effects of riluzole and endavarone, the patient informs you that he doesn’t want to start either medication. Which of the following basic principles of medical ethics could be best applied to this scenario?
Which of the following is the thalamic relay center for auditory stimuli?
A 67-year-old male with a gait disorder is having a polysomnogram due to aggressive leg movements during sleep. During the study, an abnormality is noted during sleep. The EMG and chin leads show excessive muscle artifact during sleep, while at the same time the EEG shows quick deflections in the lateral leads, indicating rapid alternating eye movements. He is given a diagnosis and started on medication. Which of the following is the most appropriate treatment for this sleep issue?
A 57-year-old navy veteran with a history of PTSD presents with a 2-year history of progressive, asymmetric weakness. The patient states that symptoms started in his left arm. Six months later he started to have falls due to tripping over his right foot. His neurological examination shows weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles of the left arm, ⅖ strength on dorsiflexion of the right ankle, and no sensory disturbances. Reflexes were mute in the left upper extremity and there were several beats of clonus at the right ankle. Fasciculations were present in the tongue, right gastrocnemius, and left tibialis anterior. An EMG is recommended for diagnosis. Which of the following EMG findings are most likely seen in this patient?
Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) classically have which of the following associated with their disease?
A 62-year-old man comes to the clinic complaining of a 2-month history of difficulties getting up from a chair, climbing steps at work, and lifting objects above his head. His primary care physician also noticed a rash on sun-exposed areas of the man’s body. EMG of proximal muscles on this patient with likely reveal which is the following?
Pilocytic astrocytomas characteristically have which of the following genetic abnormalities?
A 29-year-old female taking oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), but with no other known medical history, presents for a 3-week course of progressive headache. Given her risk factors, the following imaging study is performed. An occlusion within which of the following structures is seen?
An 8-year-old boy with no significant past medical history is brought to the clinic due to difficulties in school. His mother states that over the past year, she has received multiple phone calls from his teacher about his lack of concentration in class. On multiple occasions when asked a question, the patient would blankly stare at the wall and ignore the teacher, but then would return to his normal, talkative self immediately after each episode. An EEG is ordered, which shows 3 Hz generalized spike and wave discharges. The patient would most likely benefit from a medication targeting what?
Which of the following criteria for brain death based on EEG recording is incorrect?
A 4-year-old male is brought to your clinic by his father who states that he has been experiencing random jerky movements of his arms and his neck for the past year. His father states that the jerky movements have not gotten worse over time but tend to appear more when the boy is agitated or under stress. The movements cease when he is asleep. The patient has otherwise been meeting all of his developmental milestones. Genetic testing reveals a mutation in TITF1, a thyroid transcription factor. What is the diagnosis?
Which of the following best describes the clinical features seen in transcortical motor aphasia?
Which of the following is the mechanism of action of aspirin?
A 34-year-old female with poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes presents to the ED with a 3-day history of sinus and orbital pain, fever, and headache. Four hours ago, she was feeling confused and dizzy, which prompted her to come to the hospital. A head CT scan is performed and it shows erosion of the nasal bones and obliteration of the sinuses. Biopsy of antral tissue shows fungal hyphae. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 61-year-old male with a past medical history of GI cancer status post gastric resection at age 57, consequently on parenteral nutrition, presents to your clinic for a second opinion. He complains of slow movements and rigidity in his arms and legs that have slowly progressed over the last year. He denies tremors or cognitive change. He saw a different neurologist who started him on carbidopa/levodopa 6 months ago but the response has been minimal and he continues to get worse. You decide to perform a brain MRI and you see bilateral hyperintensity of the globus pallidi on the T1-weighted image. What treatment should you add?
Which of the following findings is depicted in the catheter angiogram shown?
A 38-year-old male with a history of sarcoidosis and a one-week history of subacute onset of progressive weakness was admitted to the hospital with difficulty ambulating. On examination, you appreciate bilateral lower extremity weakness and hyporeflexia. Based on the clinical history and EMG findings shown below what is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following medications is the first-line treatment for trigeminal neuralgia?
Which of the following arteries provides the prominent supply to the posterior limb of the internal capsule?