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The pathology shown in the image below is likely secondary to which of the following?
A 26-year-old male suffered a spinal cord injury after falling from a ladder while hanging Christmas lights. In the ICU, he is experiencing episodes of sudden extreme increases in blood pressure, bradycardia, and diaphoresis. This condition is seen most commonly in lesions of which spinal cord levels?
A 16-year-old girl with no significant past medical history presents to the clinic with 2 episodes of syncope in the past month. She states that both of the episodes occurred while giving oral presentations in front of her class. She reports that she has been under a lot of stress lately because of a midterm paper and that her parents are going through a divorce, which has taken an emotional toll on her. Before each episode of syncope, she feels warm and starts to get lightheaded, and “sees stars”. Each episode of syncope lasts approximately 15 seconds, and she does not have any confusion after the episodes. The physical exam is within normal limits. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this patient’s syncope?
A patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis presents to the emergency department with a new headache, confusion, and vision loss. A T2 sequence from their MRI is shown below. Lumbar puncture is positive for JCV in the CSF. What is the mechanism of action of the disease-modifying therapy most likely to be attributed to this clinical scenario?
A 67-year-old male presents to the clinic with his wife due to a gradual decline in his balance over the past two years. His balance issues have resulted in him falling twice in the past month. His wife states that she notices that he has been walking more slowly than usual. The patient also complains of double vision when reading the newspaper. On physical exam, the patient is noted to have a vertical gaze palsy and impaired smooth ocular pursuit, and a subtle right hand resting tremor. A brain MRI is ordered which shows atrophy in the midbrain tegmentum. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 35-year-old woman presents to the clinic with headaches. Her past medical history is significant for migraines and a sprained ankle four months ago that she has been managing with daily NSAIDs. Her headaches started a month ago and have been occurring every day for the past three weeks. She describes the headaches as a band-like pressure around her head. Nothing has helped but the symptoms are worse in the mornings. A recent brain MRI was completed during an emergency room visit which was unremarkable. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in therapy?
A 66-year-old male presents to the emergency room as an unrestrained driver in a motor vehicle accident. While initially only complaining of mild neck pain, within 30 minutes of the collision he started to experience bilateral numbness in his hands and significant symmetric upper limb weakness. Soon thereafter, the weakness extended down to his lower extremities. Neurologic examination is remarkable for loss of pain and temperature sensation in his bilateral upper extremities and symmetric bilateral upper extremity greater than lower extremity weakness. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following genetic abnormalities is most common in the pathology shown in the image below?
A 38-year-old female presents for 5 weeks of worsening encephalopathy, and blurred vision. An MRI Brain with contrast is performed and shown below (T1 post-contrast, multiple axial sections). Of the following, what is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following occurs at point “4” on this diagram of an action potential?