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Which of the following is the first branch of the internal carotid artery once it enters the skull?
Lesion to which area of the brain causes impairment in naming, fluency, and repetition with intact comprehension?
Which of the following can not cross the blood-brain barrier via channel-mediated transport?
What is the anatomical structure labeled “C” below?
Which of the following arteries supplying the thalamus provides supply to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)?
Which of the following blood vessels that supply the thalamus is the only one to branch off of the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) instead of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA)?
Of the following, which region of the adult brain is most susceptible to hypoperfusion injury and ischemia?
A 45-year-old man presents to the clinic with a disc of the following MRI. Which symptom is the patient likely experiencing?
A 55-year-old was recently diagnosed with breast cancer. She required a right mastectomy, lymph node resection, and local radiation. She presents to your clinic with right arm pain and weakness. On exam, she has weakness only to forearm pronation, and flexion at the wrist and biceps. She also has numbness of the lateral hand and the first 3 digits.
Which cord or nerve was likely injured from the surgery or radiation?
An 87-year-old male presents with a 2-year history of worsening cognitive decline and speech difficulties. Brain MRI reveals multiple chronic cerebral infarcts. The neurological exam reveals adequate comprehension and fluency but naming was impaired. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 77-year-old male presents with a 1-year history of worsening bradykinesia, recurrent falls, and a shuffling gait. Past medical history is significant for REM-sleep behavior disorder and diet-controlled hypertension. Neurologic examination reveals a tremor at rest that improves with movement, along with bilateral upper-limb spasticity. Impaired dopaminergic signaling is most likely to be found in which of the following locations?
A patient presents to the emergency room with sudden onset weakness and dysphagia. On exam, the patient’s tongue deviates to the left, and there is right hemiparesis and right-sided loss of position and vibratory sensation. Pain and temperature sensation is intact. Which of the following arteries supplies blood to the damaged area?
Uncal herniation compressing on the structure marked below (black arrow) would lead to which of the following symptoms?
A pure sensory stroke is most likely to damage which structure?
Which of the following can be appreciated on histopathologic analysis of ischemic tissue five hours after an ischemic injury to the cortex?
Vasogenic edema would be best appreciated on which of the following MRI sequences?
A 32-year-old obese and pregnant female in her third trimester presents to the clinic with pain and tingling of the lateral thigh with occasional aching in the groin. It is worsened by moving to a standing or sitting position and by wearing tight underwear. She has numbness on the right anterolateral thigh up to the level of the hip. The strength exam is normal. Which nerve is likely affected?
What is the anatomical structure marked by the blue arrow?
Which of the following areas, if selectively lesioned, would cause an error with voluntary vertical saccades with spared horizontal saccades and sparred occulocephalic vertical reflex?
Which of the following best describes the clinical features seen in transcortical motor aphasia?
Which of the following nuclei of the hypothalamus is involved in temperature regulation?
A 24-year-old patient had a severe unhelmeted motorcycle accident and despite best efforts by medication providers, he passed away two days later. An autopsy was performed. Identify the structure marked by the white arrow.
You are evaluating a patient in the clinic for loss of light touch, pain, and body position in the left upper and lower limbs. Within which of the following thalamic nuclei do these signals synapse to third-order neurons?
Cytotoxic edema would be best appreciated on which of the following MRI sequences?
A 23-year-old female with a history of optic neuritis presents with a 1-week history of left leg weakness. Neurologic examination reveals decreased strength of the left lower extremity. A lumbar puncture reveals oligoclonal bands with lymphocytic pleocytosis. What stain can be used to identify the dysfunctional cells in this condition?
Which of the following anatomic structures is responsible for the perception of superficial light touch?
A 55-year-old male presents with progressive worsening new headache over several months. He did not wish to seek medical attention but now presents because his family reports his facial expressions “look different”. On exam, he has impaired upgaze, light near dissociation, and convergence retraction nystagmus. An MRI is done and shows a lesion. Where is the lesion likely located?
Which of the following occurs at point “4” on this diagram of an action potential?
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy would be best appreciated on which of the following MRI sequences?
Which of the following structures has an intact blood-brain barrier?
A 45-year-old female presents as a trauma for an unhelmeted motorcycle accident. She has sustained significant blunt head trauma, and CTH shows hydrocephalus caused by edematous mass effect compressing the fourth ventricle. Which of the following shows the correct directional flow of CSF in a normal individual?
Immunohistochemical staining with GFAP is particularly useful in identifying which of the following cell types?
An 80-year-old woman with uncontrolled HTN presents to the ED with symptoms upon awakening of left hemi-sensory loss, last seen well 8 hours prior. MRI is done and shows a lateral thalamic lacunar stroke. The small branch affected in this lacune is most often a branch of which major artery?
Based on the histopathologic findings shown below, how long ago did this patient experience an ischemic stroke?
Paraphasic and semantic errors in speech can occur secondary to a lesion in which of the following regions?
Which of the following is the chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting?
Which of the following can not passively diffuse across the blood-brain barrier?
A young infant is found after birth to have an abnormality of the left arm. The arm is held down by the infant’s side, adducted and medially rotated, and the forearm is extended and pronated. What is the anatomic location of the injury causing the deficits?
A lesion to which of the following neuroanatomical structures causes dysphagia, decreased gag reflex, and hoarseness?