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A 59-year-old man with HTN, T2D, and peripheral vascular disease presents with sudden complete loss of vision in the left eye, which resolved after about 20 minutes. He denies any other symptoms. Which of the following vessels was most likely obstructed?
A 24-year-old weight-lifter presents after sudden-onset neck pain. On exam, there is right eye ptosis and asymmetric right pupil constriction. Additionally, the patient appreciated decreased sweat production on the right side of his face. 1% hydroxyamphetamine eye drops are administered to the right eye and it dilates. Where is the most likely site of the patient’s lesion?
A 35-year-old male presented for sudden onset painless central vision loss. An outside hospital emergency room physician suggested he may have had a CRAO, but recommended immediate ophthalmology outpatient evaluation. The patient was unfortunately lost to follow-up for a few months. He presents today due to a sudden onset of central vision loss in the other eye.
On your ophthalmologic exam, you note hyperemic optic nerve and tortuous central retinal vessels, without evidence of vessel cutoff. He has a central scotoma bilaterally, with peripheral vision intact. He has red color desaturation as well. MRI brain w/ and w/o contrast with fat suppression and thin cuts through the orbits is performed, and normal.
This disorder is caused by which of the following pathologic processes?
Which of the following can be appreciated on the T1 MRI sequence shown below?
A 15-year-old boy with a past medical history of ADHD presents with odd behaviors including shrugging his shoulders and blinking frequently. His mother also states that he used to have some similar movements when he was younger, but they seem to have worsened since starting a new medication for his ADHD. Which of the following medications is most likely responsible for his symptoms?
A 42-year-old man with a 6-month history of progressive muscle weakness has a nerve biopsy performed. Based on the toluidine blue (left) and trichrome (right) stain slides shown, which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT) is associated with which of the following pathologic findings?
A 28-year-old woman with a history of intractable epilepsy presents to you for outpatient follow-up. She has been seizure-free on valproic acid and levetiracetam for the last 18 months. She reports a desire to become pregnant and asks if she has an increased risk of in-utero defects with her medications. Which of the following is the most appropriate answer to this question?
A 67-year-old male presents with the inability to reach for objects in his visual field. He states that he can see the object, but on the clinical exam he can not grasp it accurately. He also is unable to see multiple objects at once. He has a past medical history of atrial fibrillation and an ischemic injury is suspected. A brain MRI would show which of the following areas of the brain is/are affected?