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A 55-year-old male presents with progressive worsening new headache over several months. He did not wish to seek medical attention but now presents because his family reports his facial expressions “look different”. On exam, he has impaired upgaze, light near dissociation, and convergence retraction nystagmus. An MRI is done and shows a lesion. Where is the lesion likely located?
Paraphasic and semantic errors in speech can occur secondary to a lesion in which of the following regions?
A 45-year-old man presents to the clinic with a disc of the following MRI. Which symptom is the patient likely experiencing?
A 23-year-old female with a history of optic neuritis presents with a 1-week history of left leg weakness. Neurologic examination reveals decreased strength of the left lower extremity. A lumbar puncture reveals oligoclonal bands with lymphocytic pleocytosis. What stain can be used to identify the dysfunctional cells in this condition?
Cytotoxic edema would be best appreciated on which of the following MRI sequences?
Which of the following nuclei of the hypothalamus is involved in temperature regulation?
An 87-year-old male presents with a 2-year history of worsening cognitive decline and speech difficulties. Brain MRI reveals multiple chronic cerebral infarcts. The neurological exam reveals adequate comprehension and fluency but naming was impaired. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following is the chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting?
Lesion to which area of the brain causes impairment in naming, fluency, and repetition with intact comprehension?
You are evaluating a patient in the clinic for loss of light touch, pain, and body position in the left upper and lower limbs. Within which of the following thalamic nuclei do these signals synapse to third-order neurons?
A patient presents to the emergency room with sudden onset weakness and dysphagia. On exam, the patient’s tongue deviates to the left, and there is right hemiparesis and right-sided loss of position and vibratory sensation. Pain and temperature sensation is intact. Which of the following arteries supplies blood to the damaged area?
Based on the histopathologic findings shown below, how long ago did this patient experience an ischemic stroke?
A 55-year-old was recently diagnosed with breast cancer. She required a right mastectomy, lymph node resection, and local radiation. She presents to your clinic with right arm pain and weakness. On exam, she has weakness only to forearm pronation, and flexion at the wrist and biceps. She also has numbness of the lateral hand and the first 3 digits.
Which cord or nerve was likely injured from the surgery or radiation?
A 77-year-old male presents with a 1-year history of worsening bradykinesia, recurrent falls, and a shuffling gait. Past medical history is significant for REM-sleep behavior disorder and diet-controlled hypertension. Neurologic examination reveals a tremor at rest that improves with movement, along with bilateral upper-limb spasticity. Impaired dopaminergic signaling is most likely to be found in which of the following locations?
Which of the following can not passively diffuse across the blood-brain barrier?