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Which of the following nerves when damaged can lead to scapular winging?
A 63-year-old female presents with a 6-month history of difficulty walking and muscle weakness. Neurologic examination reveals normal bulk but muscle fasciculations, bilateral extensor plantar responses, muscle spasticity, and hyperreflexia. Pathology at which of the following structures could explain these symptoms?
Which of the following is most likely to be damaged by carbon monoxide toxicity?
Identify the structure (blue arrow) shown below:
On microscopic evaluation, which of the following is a classic finding present in the Parkinson-plus syndromes of both progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration, but not Parkinson’s disease?
A 65-year-old female presents with an abrupt onset of akinetic mutism, lack of motivation, apathy, bilateral leg weakness, and incontinence. A lesion to which of the following vascular territories could explain her symptoms?
Of the following, which region of the adult brain is most susceptible to hypoperfusion injury and ischemia?
A 16-year-old girl with no significant past medical history presents to the clinic with 2 episodes of syncope in the past month. She states that both of the episodes occurred while giving oral presentations in front of her class. She reports that she has been under a lot of stress lately because of a midterm paper and that her parents are going through a divorce, which has taken an emotional toll on her. Before each episode of syncope, she feels warm and starts to get lightheaded, and “sees stars”. Each episode of syncope lasts approximately 15 seconds, and she does not have any confusion after the episodes. The physical exam is within normal limits. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this patient’s syncope?
A 37-year-old male presents with sudden onset of tachycardia and hypertension, followed shortly by unilateral rhythmic facial and then arm jerking. The autonomic symptoms of tachycardia and hypertension are most likely to reflect the involvement of which region of the brain during a seizure?
A 68-year-old woman with a history of diabetes and hypertension presented urgently to the ED with a 2-day history of headaches and confusion. Before any imaging was able to be completed in the emergency room, the patient had a cardiac arrest and died. An autopsy was requested by the family. A gross pathologic image of the patient’s brain is shown below. What is the most likely etiology of the findings seen in this image?
A 32-year-old male comes into the headache clinic for severe headaches. They occur several times a day and last approximately one hour. They are only felt on the left side of his head, and he says he gets a runny nose and a little teary during the episodes. What is a notable side effect of the prophylactic medicine that is considered first-line therapy for this condition?
Which of the following medications is associated with the occurrence of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS)?
A 49-year-old woman with recurrent episodes of vertigo and has an MRI brain performed at the request of her neurologist. Imaging reveals a well-circumscribed dural-based homogenous contrast-enhancing lesion. What is the most likely etiology of the lesion outlined above?
A 30-year-old woman presents to the clinic with severe headaches requesting treatment because she “can’t live with this pain”. Episodes are left-sided, occur multiple times a day, and last about 20 minutes each. During episodes, she will also have eye tearing and rhinorrhea. What is the appropriate therapy?
A 47-year-old woman from the Caribbean presents to the clinic with a seven-year history of progressive difficulty with ambulation. The exam is notable for lower extremity spasticity. An MRI is ordered and shows atrophy of the spinal cord without other changes. The clinical and MRI findings for this patient are most likely secondary to which of the following infections?