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A 16-year-old male is brought to the emergency room by his parents for generalized weakness. The patient states that he woke up in the morning that day with flaccid paralysis of his arms and legs which was so significant that he couldn’t get out of bed. In typical teenage boy fashion, he wasn’t very worried about this at the time and went back to bed. It wasn’t until 4 hours later when he woke up again with the same degree of weakness that he became concerned and screamed for his parents to help. The patient denies any recent drug or alcohol use. The only interesting thing from the previous night was that he partook in and won a pizza-eating contest with his friends. The patient’s father admits to having had similar episodes to this when he was younger. If the patient’s symptoms are due to a genetic disorder, a mutation in which of the following genes is most likely responsible?
Patients with Alzheimer’s disease may have hypometabolism in which of the following brain regions?
A 72-year-old male with a past medical history of hypertension presents with an acute onset of right upper and lower extremity weakness. The sensory exam is normal. Right homonymous hemianopia is also appreciated. Which of the following vessels is most likely affected?
A 49-year-old woman with recurrent episodes of vertigo and has an MRI brain performed at the request of her neurologist. Imaging reveals a well-circumscribed dural-based homogenous contrast-enhancing lesion. What is the most likely etiology of the lesion outlined above?
A critically ill 1-month-old has cerebral vessel imaging performed and shown below. Which of the following comorbid medical issues are likely present?
A 38-year-old man presents to the emergency room with a 2-month history of headaches, increased thirst, and decreased libido. CT scan of the head shows a suprasellar, partially calcified mass. An MRI was ordered thereafter and is shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following vessels that supply the thalamus originates from the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery and supplies the lateral geniculate nucleus?
Which of the following is the relay center for sensory information of the body?
A 36-year-old female with a history of renal cell carcinoma with headaches and slight right arm/leg ataxia had an MRI of the brain that showed a contrast-enhancing lesion in the right cerebellum. Surgical resection was completed and histology of the lesion is shown below. This patient most likely has which of the following diagnoses?
Which of the following regions of the brain, when active, promotes the switch from drowsiness to non-REM sleep?
A 35-year-old male with a past medical history of intravenous drug use presents with back pain, fever, anorexia, and generalized weakness. An MRI of his sagittal spine is shown below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following medications are known to develop neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against it with chronic use?
A 17-year-old woman with no significant past medical history except for an upper respiratory tract infection 2 weeks ago presents with a one-day history of fever, headache, and altered mental status. On examination, the patient also had right-sided ataxia. An MRI brain was ordered and T2 sequence images are shown below. The lesions showed minimal lesional enhancement with contrast administration (image not shown). What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 4-day-old full-term baby is brought to the hospital for two episodes of generalized stiffening and apnea for less than 1 minute followed by a return to baseline. The physical exam is unremarkable and CTH is negative. The mother reports having similar episodes shortly after birth. What is the most likely cause of the episodes?
The medulla develops from which of the five primary vesicles of the brain?
A 30-year-old woman with well-controlled epilepsy with lamotrigine monotherapy comes to the clinic today stating that she and her husband are planning to start a family. Which of the following statements is most correct regarding her clinical situation?
A 45-year-old female presents as a trauma for an unhelmeted motorcycle accident. She has sustained significant blunt head trauma, and CTH shows hydrocephalus caused by edematous mass effect compressing the fourth ventricle. Which of the following shows the correct directional flow of CSF in a normal individual?
Which of the following antiepileptic drugs can induce myoclonic seizures?
Submaximal muscle stimulation is used during which of the following aspects of the nerve conduction study?
A 19-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with a 2 weeks history of progressive lower extremity weakness. CSF studies showed an elevated CSF protein and normal WBC count. MRI of the lumbar spine showed contrast enhancement of the cauda equina. His nerve conduction study (NCS) is shown below. What is the most appropriate next step in medical management?
A 13-year-old boy presents with worsening severe headaches, nausea, vomiting, sleepiness, and confusion. The symptoms have been episodic, improved somewhat by lying recumbent. An MRI is done and shows the following. Which of the following is the best treatment option?
The PET scan shown is most consistent with which of the following diseases?
The vessel labeled 1 in the angiogram provided supplies all of the following structures EXCEPT:
A 49-year-old female has had a 6-month history of difficulty swallowing and weight loss. On examination, she has generalized muscle loss. On strength examination, she has 3/5 proximally and 4/5 distally in the bilateral upper extremities. There are normal tongue movements and a normal jaw jerk reflex. Deep tendon reflexes in the bilateral upper extremities are normal and sensation is intact. An EMG is performed and outlined below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A thin 28-year-old male presents to the clinic with complaints of foot drop. On exam, he has a right foot drop as well as numbness on the lateral aspect of the right lower leg. You suspect compression of a nerve at the fibular head. Malfunction of which of the following nerves causes the foot drop itself?