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Which of the following is the mechanism of action for aducanumab?
The PET scan shown is most consistent with which of the following diseases?
Which of the following is most often associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease?
A 50-year-old Caucasian woman with no past medical history is admitted to the psychiatric hospital after trying to jump from a moving bus. She reports the other passengers were laughing at her in their minds, and trying to steal her thoughts. Upon arrival to the psychiatric floor, she is witnessed to have sudden left eye deviation with right arm twitching for a few seconds before turning her head, screaming loudly, and falling to the floor with full-body convulsions, lasting 2 minutes.
You, the attending neurologist, are consulted to help evaluate. On exam she is easily distractible, looking to the corners of the room for security cameras. You contact her husband who states she has never had any problems like this before, but she has gone downhill over the last 3 weeks, forgetting people and places, repeating herself, and acting strangely.
Lab evaluation reveals normal CBC, BMP, TSH, T4, free T4, and T3. The comprehensive drug screen is negative. MRI brain w/ and w/o contrast is normal appearing. Lumbar puncture is with 18 cmH20 opening pressure, 0 WBCs, 1 RBC, 50 protein, and 55 glucose. The autoimmune panel is sent and anti-microsomal antibodies are elevated. What is the most likely diagnosis at this time?
Which of the following is the mechanism of action of memantine?
A 50-year-old male is admitted for 3 months of progressive memory loss, visual hallucinations, and myoclonus. Examination revealed myoclonic jerks. Which of the following tests is the most specific for this disease?
Which of the following medications is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that is FDA approved in the U.S. for the treatment of severe Alzheimer’s disease?
Which of the following is the annual conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia?
A 50-year-old man presents with slowly progressive cognitive decline and personality changes. Over the past several months, he has been having trouble remembering the names of relatives/close friends and he has also become more apathetic. He is known to have trisomy 21. His exam is notable for memory deficits, but no rigidity or tremor. What is the name of the region of the brain that synthesizes the neurotransmitter that is decreased in this patient’s disease?
Which of the following is an appropriate test to assess for dorsolateral frontal lobe dysfunction?
A 57-year-old male presents to the Emergency Room with a 3-month history of progressive altered mental status. On examination, the patient had ataxia and hyperekplexia. An MRI is performed and shown below. What is the most likely etiology of the patient’s deficits?
What is the pathophysiology that leads to the pathology shown in the image below?
A 62-year-old male with a past medical history of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia presents with a stepwise progression of worsening forgetfulness over the last three years. Physical examination reveals a score of 20/30 on the Mini-Mental State Examination with deficits in multiple cognitive domains. Hyperreflexia in the left upper and lower extremities is also appreciated. Her axial FLAIR sequence brain MRI scan is shown. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 68-year-old female presents with a one-year history of progressive memory problems and deteriorating mobility. Upon further questioning the patient notes incontinence. A physical exam reveals a wide-based gait with shuffling steps. A brain MRI shows widening of the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles. Which of the following is the best next step in management?
Which of the following symptoms seen with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is the most responsive CSF shunt placement?
Mutations in the progranulin protein (gene PGRN) can serve as a biomarker for the risk of which of the following diseases?
A 43-year-old female presents with rapidly declining cognitive function over the past few weeks. She is no longer able to hold a sustained conversation, she is no longer able to drive, and has worsening insomnia. CSF analysis shows increased 14-3-3 protein levels. What is the pathogenesis of this patient’s disease?
What is the pathophysiology that leads to the pathology shown with a black arrow in the image below?
Patients with Alzheimer’s disease may have hypometabolism in which of the following brain regions?
An 82-year-old female presents with her family for a 3-year slow decline in memory. On examination, she has a MOCA of 23/30. She does not feel that she has any issues, but her family feels that she has trouble remembering important dates in her life and will repeat stories to them. Despite this, she has lived alone since her husband died 2 years ago and is able to cook, clean, and bathe on her own. She also balances her own checkbook and does her own grocery shopping. According to the DSM-V, this patient meets the criteria for which disorder?
Identify the pathologic finding marked by the red arrow.
Which of the following medications is approved only for moderate to severe Alzheimer’s Disease?
A 64-year-old female with no significant past medical history presents to the clinic because of concerns related to her memory. She states that she has difficulty recalling names and recent conversations. She had a planned retirement two years ago and was functioning well at work at that time. She continues to live alone and is independent with her basic and instrumental daily life activities. Depression screening is negative, but she scores a 27/30 on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA), with deficits in delayed recall. Her neurological examination is otherwise non-focal. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following is the most common gene associated with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease?
An 82-year-old woman donated her brain to science for post-mortem analysis (see below). Which of the following symptoms did the patient most likely experience before her passing?