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Which of the following muscles is innervated by the vagus nerve (CN X)?
Which of the following is the primary source of norepinephrine in the brain?
A 37-year-old male presents with sudden onset of tachycardia and hypertension, followed shortly by unilateral rhythmic facial and then arm jerking. The autonomic symptoms of tachycardia and hypertension are most likely to reflect the involvement of which region of the brain during a seizure?
Which answer correctly identifies all of the cranial nerve(s) that transverse through the structure (blue arrow) shown below?
Which of the following cranial nerves is most likely to be affected by increased intracranial pressure?
Uncal herniation compressing on the structure marked below (black arrow) would lead to which of the following symptoms?
Which of the following symptoms is unlikely to be caused by a lesion in the cavernous sinus?
A patient presents with double vision that improves when tilting their head to the right. A lesion is most likely to be present in which of the following cranial nerves?
A 65-year-old male with a history of alcoholic cirrhosis presents to the emergency department with dark black coffee-ground emesis. He is found to have a systolic blood pressure of 76/40 and is tachycardic to 120 BPM. Which nerve is most responsible for carrying the afferent fibers from carotid sinus baroreceptors that cause the reflex increase in heart rate seen in this patient?
Match the phase of the Valsalva maneuver with its associated physiology.
A 78-year-old patient with a history of multiple system atrophy (MSA) presents to your clinic for falls. The patient states that while standing he initially experiences feelings of lightheadedness and tunnel vision before a loss of consciousness. While on the ground he will be “twitching” for 30 seconds before he regains consciousness. Which of the following tests is the most likely to be diagnostic in this case?
Initiation of urination involves which of the following physiologic processes?
A 45-year-old female presents as a trauma for an unhelmeted motorcycle accident. She has sustained significant blunt head trauma, and CTH shows hydrocephalus caused by edematous mass effect compressing the fourth ventricle. Which of the following shows the correct directional flow of CSF in a normal individual?
Which synapsed of the peripheral nervous system is acetylcholine the primary neurotransmitter?
Of the following, which extraocular muscle is not innervated by the oculomotor nerve?
Identify the structure (blue arrow) shown below:
The ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve exits the skull from which cranial foramina?
Identify the structures labeled in the image below: