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The pathophysiology of the lesion shown in the gross pathologic image below is most likely which of the following?
Which of the following is the thalamic relay center for auditory stimuli?
A 68-year-old female presents with a one-year history of progressive memory problems and deteriorating mobility. Upon further questioning the patient notes incontinence. A physical exam reveals a wide-based gait with shuffling steps. A brain MRI shows widening of the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles. Which of the following is the best next step in management?
A 46-year-old female presents to the clinic with right-hand numbness, specifically in the 4th and 5th digits. EMG testing reveals fibrillations on the first dorsal interosseous, and flexor pollicis longus. EMG testing of the abductor pollicis brevis and triceps was unremarkable. These findings are most likely caused by radiculopathy of which of the following nerve roots?
Which of the following is the thalamic relay center for proprioception of the face?
A 42-year-old female with a history of epilepsy has an EEG performed while establishing care with a new provider. She admits to knowing very little about what type of epilepsy she has. A 10-second epoch of her study is shown below. Based on the available data, what medication should be avoided in the management of her epilepsy?
A 4-year-old male is brought to your clinic by his father who states that he has been experiencing random jerky movements of his arms and his neck for the past year. His father states that the jerky movements have not gotten worse over time but tend to appear more when the boy is agitated or under stress. The movements cease when he is asleep. The patient has otherwise been meeting all of his developmental milestones. Genetic testing reveals a mutation in TITF1, a thyroid transcription factor. What is the diagnosis?
A 32-year-old male with a longstanding history of epilepsy secondary to mesial temporal sclerosis returns to your clinic. Despite being on appropriate doses of levetiracetam and valproic acid he continues to have 20 partial seizures and 4 generalized tonic-clonic seizures per month. Which of the following is the next best step in his care?
A 67-year-old man presents urgently to the emergency room with an acute onset of left-sided weakness and numbness. A CT head was performed and shown below. What is the most likely etiology of the patient’s symptoms?
A 74-year-old female presents to the ED for trouble with swallowing and balance. On physical examination, she is unable to speak clearly and has no gag reflex. Pain and temperature sensation on the right side of her body and the left side of her face is decreased. She is unable to walk unassisted and has dysmetria on the finger-to-nose exam. MRI of the brain shows an ischemic stroke. The artery that is affected most commonly branches off of which of the following?
A 16-year-old male with no significant past medical history presents to the emergency room with vision complaints and coordination issues. Four days ago, he began experiencing double vision and since then has had progressive difficulty picking up objects and buttoning his shirts. On physical exam, the patient has a decreased range of motion of the extraocular muscles bilaterally, as well as areflexia and ataxia when walking. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 63-year-old female presents to the office, accompanied by her husband who has become increasingly worried about his wife’s ability to perform tasks at home. He states that for the past three months she has not been able to tie her shoes, and fumbles with the shoelaces in her hands. Additionally, within the past month, she has not been able to brush her teeth, and simply holds the toothbrush in her hand, without moving. Lastly, her husband has noticed that the patient moves slower on their morning walks together, and her arms and legs seem more tight and rigid. A brain MRI is ordered which shows asymmetric atrophy of the superior parietal lobule. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following has the longest half-life?
Which of the following findings is depicted in the catheter angiogram shown?
What is a common comorbid issue seen in newborns with the vascular abnormality appreciated in the imaging provided?