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A 51-year-old woman with a past medical history of migraines and irritable bowel syndrome comes to the physician because of abnormal shaking of both hands for the past two months. The shaking improves after two glasses of wine. Examination shows symmetric hand tremors that worsen when the patient reaches for objects in front of her. What is the mechanism of action of the most appropriate first-line treatment?
A 40-year-old male presents to the clinic with difficulty swallowing. On additional questioning, he reports difficulty walking, falls, and dysarthria. Examination shows bilateral facial weakness, fasciculations, and gynecomastia. A CAG trinucleotide repeat on which of the following genes is the cause of this disease?
Of the following, which region of the adult brain is most susceptible to hypoperfusion injury and ischemia?
A 7-year-old girl presents with 2 weeks of a right-sided unilateral throbbing headache. She has otherwise been healthy with no other symptoms and has no past medical history except for a light pink birthmark around her right eye. What is the most appropriate next step?
A 48-year-old male with a history of a motor vehicle accident and right leg tibial plateau fracture was referred to a neurologist because of right leg weakness. He states he often catches his right foot while walking and stubs his toes when he walks barefoot. On examination, there is decreased strength with both ankle dorsiflexion and foot inversion. Weakness of which of the following muscles is responsible for the patient’s symptoms?
A 48-year-old patient with a past medical history of chronic migraines is brought in by her family with sudden-onset memory complaints. She is unable to recall where she lives or even her own name. A brain MRI (Left: DWI. Right: ADC.) is shown below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 3-year-old girl is admitted to the hospital with a 2-day history of constipation, lethargy, and a weak cry. Repetitive stimulation performed at 20 Hz revealed incremental response. What is the likely cause of this patient’s illness?
A 56-year-old woman with recent open-heart surgery develops sudden onset, painless right eye vision loss. On funduscopic examination, the optic disc appears swollen and pale. No other significant findings were appreciated on the funduscopic exam. Damage to which of the following structures is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
A 6-year-old developmentally normal male presents after experiencing an episode of jerking of the right side of his mouth and inability to speak lasting 2 minutes. The patient is now back to baseline and has an EEG performed. Based on this clinical picture, which of the following abnormalities would you most expect to see on the EEG?
A 48-year-old woman presents with acute onset of seizures, myoclonus, ataxia, and rapidly progressive dementia. CSF analysis reveals an elevated protein and mild pleocytosis. Brain MRI with and without contrast is unremarkable. Further investigation reveals elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Which of the following is the most appropriate therapy?
A two-month-old boy is brought to the Emergency Room by his mother because of lethargy for the past 3 hours. His mother states that earlier today the child rolled off the couch and hit his head on the hardwood floor. Physical exam shows excessive somnolence, tense anterior fontanelle, and fundoscopic exam shows bilateral retinal hemorrhages. A non-contrast CT of the head shows subdural hematomas of varying ages. A CT head is ordered and pending. Otherwise, what is the next most appropriate step in the management of this patient?
Which of the following findings is most typically seen with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder?
Which of the following is the most likely cause of the findings seen on this gross pathology image?
A 58-year-old male with a prolonged history of MG was recently discharged 4 months ago from the hospital with his second myasthenic crisis requiring transient intubation. Since that hospitalization, he was on prednisone, tapered down to 40 mg a day, cyclosporine, and pyridostigmine. He comes to the ED today after having a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the ED, the patient is post-ictal and has vision deficits on exam. MRI shows T2 hyperintensities on the posterior cerebral hemispheres. Which of the following is the likely etiology of the clinical presentation?
A 65-year-old female with 40 pack-year history presents with a 2-week history of generalized weakness that improves with repeated testing. You are concerned for Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding LEMS and/or myasthenia gravis (MG)?
A 28-year-old female is brought to the emergency room by her husband because of behavioral changes and memory issues over the last 4 days. Right after the MRI, shown below, the patient had a tonic-clonic seizure. Based on the limited clinical history and imaging provided, which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A neurology consult was placed for a 35-year-old male who was admitted overnight after a motor vehicle accident that occurred earlier in the day. He experienced multiple bone fractures, including the right humerus at the spiral groove. The primary team is concerned about a radial nerve injury. Which of the following findings are most likely to be found on EMG/NCS?
A 75-year-old patient is brought by her husband because of word-finding difficulty. On cognitive testing, the most impressive finding was that the patient couldn’t recall many colors of the rainbow. Based on this finding, what kind of memory is most impaired?
Which of the following arteries supplies the lumbar spinal cord?
A patient with a history of a chronic ischemic stroke has an MRI performed for new-onset seizures. Based on the imaging provided, what is the likely etiology of the patient’s past stroke?
A 30-year-old male presents to the emergency room with weakness in his bilateral lower extremities. On arrival, he was hypertensive and bradycardic. 2/5 strength is appreciated in his bilateral lower extremities. A loss of pinprick sensation is also appreciated from his lower extremities, but proprioception and vibratory sensation are intact. These findings are most likely secondary to a lesion of which of the following blood vessels?
What is the anatomical structure labeled “C” below?
This muscle biopsy is most consistent with which myopathic disease?