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A 26-year-old male suffered a spinal cord injury after falling from a ladder while hanging Christmas lights. In the ICU, he is experiencing episodes of sudden extreme increases in blood pressure, bradycardia, and diaphoresis. This condition is seen most commonly in lesions of which spinal cord levels?
A 40-year-old previously healthy man arrives in the emergency room with a 1-week history of slowly progressive leg weakness. Symptoms initially started with burning-type pain in his bilateral lower extremities. Neurological examination shows 4-/5 strength in bilateral lower extremities and areflexia of the patella and Achilles. MRI is shown below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 20-year-old male presents with severe burns on his hands after accidentally touching a stove. Neurology was consulted because the family noted that the patient did not initially pull away from the hot stove as one would expect. Physical exam shows decreased sensation of pain and temperature along the back and arms, with intact strength. T2 sagittal MRI of the cervical spine is shown below. Which of the following is commonly associated with the pathology shown?
A neurology consult is placed on a full-term newborn male after being delivered by an uncomplicated vaginal delivery with good APGAR scores. The physical exam reveals a midline lesion in his lumbar region. Based on the pathology shown below, which of the following would most likely also be present on head imaging?
A 36-year-old man with no significant past medical history presents with lower back pain, lower extremity weakness, and urinary incontinence. A non-contrast enhancing lesion was found on lumbar MRI (T1 sequence without contrast image shown below). What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 63-year-old woman with right leg weakness and pain has an MRI performed to evaluate for a possible cause. Her imaging is provided below. Based on the location of the lesion, which of the following muscles is most likely weak on examination?
Which of the following is the relay center for sensory information of the body?
A 40-year-old male presents with a one-day history of numbness of his right arm. This has never happened before, but he does report an episode of left leg weakness that self-resolved two years ago. The neurological examination confirms a sensory disturbance of his right arm. Sagittal MRI of the cervical spine is shown below (Left: T1, Middle: T1 with contrast, Right: T2). Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 45-year-old man with a past medical history of IV drug use presents with a 3-day history of back pain and fever with numbness and tingling in his arms bilaterally. He is now unable to write his name or button his shirt. His cervical MRI is shown below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 4-month-old boy is brought by his parents due to difficulty in feeding, and episodes of apnea. Physical examination reveals tongue fasciculations, a bulging anterior fontanelle, and an abducens nerve palsy. MRI reveals an Arnold Chiari malformation type II. What additional defect is this child likely to have?
A 26-year-old woman presents to the emergency department with third-degree burns covering the entire palmar aspect of her right hand. She claims that she was cooking dinner and touched the stove, but states that she “didn’t notice it was hot”. On neurologic exam, she is unable to distinguish between hot and cold sensations on her hands, arms, shoulders, chest, and back. She also fails to respond to pinprick sensation in the same distribution. She denies any major recent traumatic injuries. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her symptoms?
Identify the tract marked by the red arrow in the spinal cord diagram below.
A 22-year-old female with chronic daily headaches and other neurological symptoms has an MRI performed as part of her diagnostic workup. Her cervical MRI imaging is provided below. In addition to her chronic daily headaches, what are the most likely additional neurological symptoms she experiences?
A 63-year-old female presents with a 6-month history of difficulty walking and muscle weakness. Neurologic examination reveals normal bulk but muscle fasciculations, bilateral extensor plantar responses, muscle spasticity, and hyperreflexia. Pathology at which of the following structures could explain these symptoms?
A 38-year-old man presents with a 1-year history of neck pain and left upper extremity weakness. The symptoms started insidiously, and have slowly worsened over time. A sagittal cervical spine MRI is shown below (Left: T2 without contrast. Right: T1 with contrast). Which of the following is the most likely cause of his symptoms?
A 35-year-old male with a past medical history of intravenous drug use presents with back pain, fever, anorexia, and generalized weakness. An MRI of his sagittal spine is shown below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 66-year-old male presents to the emergency room as an unrestrained driver in a motor vehicle accident. While initially only complaining of mild neck pain, within 30 minutes of the collision he started to experience bilateral numbness in his hands and significant symmetric upper limb weakness. Soon thereafter, the weakness extended down to his lower extremities. Neurologic examination is remarkable for loss of pain and temperature sensation in his bilateral upper extremities and symmetric bilateral upper extremity greater than lower extremity weakness. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 62-year-old woman with low back pain presents to the emergency department complaining of 4 weeks of a strange sensation when wiping with toilet paper, as well as urinary and fecal incontinence. On exam, she has 5/5 strength throughout her limbs and normal deep tendon reflexes. What is the location of her lesion?
You are asked to see a 64-year-old man with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and peripheral vascular disease who is post-operative day 1 from an aortic aneurysm repair. On exam, he exhibits bilateral lower extremity weakness, as well as loss of pain and temperature sensation below the umbilicus. Light touch and proprioception are intact in the lower extremities. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 75-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes presents to the emergency department with a sudden onset of loss of sensation in the buttocks, perineum, and inner surfaces of both thighs, and urinary and fecal incontinence. On physical exam, he has loss of pain and light touch in the area described, as well as a loss of sphincter tone, and hyperreflexia in the lower extremities. Strength is mildly decreased in the distal lower extremities, without atrophy. What structure is most likely injured?
A 32-year-old female presents to the emergency room after a motor vehicle accident as a restrained back seat passenger. Her only complaint on arrival is back pain. She has bruises across her abdomen and chest and a normal neurological exam. Thoracic spine imaging was completed and is shown below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
In the diagram below, what neurologic information is carried by the tract labeled with the green arrow?
A 65-year-old male presents with an acute onset of back pain, bilateral lower extremity weakness, and bladder incontinence. A physical exam reveals decreased strength and loss of pain and temperature sensation in both legs. Vibratory and light touch sensation and proprioception remain intact. A lesion to which of the following arteries would most likely be responsible for this clinical presentation?
A healthy 12-year-old female has a brain MRI performed because of a history of medically refractory headaches. Her imaging is shown below. What is the diagnosis?
Identify the lesion shown below.
A 37-year-old female with a past medical history of chronic fatigue and heat intolerance presents with right arm weakness. A cervical spine MRI is performed and shown below (Left: T2 sagittal. Right: T2 axial). Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 68-year-old man with left leg weakness and pain has an MRI performed to evaluate for a possible etiology. Her imaging is provided below. Based on the location of the lesion, which of the following muscles is most likely weak on examination?
A 31-year-old man presents after being found down at the scene of an armed robbery. On physical examination, there is lower extremity weakness and loss of proprioception and vibration on the right side, as well as loss of pain and temperature sensation on the left leg. His MRI is shown below. Which is the most likely condition suffered by this man?
A 25-year-old female with no significant past medical history presents with a two-day history of progressive bilateral lower extremity weakness and numbness. On physical exam, she has 3/5 strength in hip flexion and knee extension bilaterally, along with a loss of sensation. She is up to date on all vaccinations. She is afebrile. Sagittal (left) and axial (right) T2 thoracic MRI images are shown below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?