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Cytotoxic edema would be best appreciated on which of the following MRI sequences?
A lesion to which of the following neuroanatomical structures causes dysphagia, decreased gag reflex, and hoarseness?
Which of the following areas, if selectively lesioned, would cause an error with voluntary vertical saccades with spared horizontal saccades and sparred occulocephalic vertical reflex?
Which of the findings are most likely to be found on examination in a patient with the lesion appreciated in the image below?
Which of the following is the primary source of norepinephrine in the brain?
Which of the following is the chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting?
Uncal herniation compressing on the structure marked below (black arrow) would lead to which of the following symptoms?
What is the anatomical structure labeled “C” below?
Identify the structures labeled in the image below:
A 24-year-old patient had a severe unhelmeted motorcycle accident and despite best efforts by medication providers, he passed away two days later. An autopsy was performed. Identify the structure marked by the white arrow.
Which of the following anatomic structures is responsible for the perception of superficial light touch?
What is the anatomical structure marked by the blue arrow?
You are evaluating a patient in the clinic for loss of light touch, pain, and body position in the left upper and lower limbs. Within which of the following thalamic nuclei do these signals synapse to third-order neurons?
A 23-year-old female with a history of optic neuritis presents with a 1-week history of left leg weakness. Neurologic examination reveals decreased strength of the left lower extremity. A lumbar puncture reveals oligoclonal bands with lymphocytic pleocytosis. What stain can be used to identify the dysfunctional cells in this condition?
Which of the following can not passively diffuse across the blood-brain barrier?
A young infant is found after birth to have an abnormality of the left arm. The arm is held down by the infant’s side, adducted and medially rotated, and the forearm is extended and pronated. What is the anatomic location of the injury causing the deficits?
A 55-year-old was recently diagnosed with breast cancer. She required a right mastectomy, lymph node resection, and local radiation. She presents to your clinic with right arm pain and weakness. On exam, she has weakness only to forearm pronation, and flexion at the wrist and biceps. She also has numbness of the lateral hand and the first 3 digits.
Which cord or nerve was likely injured from the surgery or radiation?
Which of the following blood vessels that supply the thalamus is the only one to branch off of the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) instead of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA)?
A 45-year-old female presents as a trauma for an unhelmeted motorcycle accident. She has sustained significant blunt head trauma, and CTH shows hydrocephalus caused by edematous mass effect compressing the fourth ventricle. Which of the following shows the correct directional flow of CSF in a normal individual?
Which of the following is the first branch of the internal carotid artery once it enters the skull?