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You are evaluating a patient in the clinic for loss of light touch, pain, and body position in the left upper and lower limbs. Within which of the following thalamic nuclei do these signals synapse to third-order neurons?
A 37-year-old man with a history of hypertension presents to the emergency department with a one-day history of difficulty walking. On examination, he has right leg paresis and hyperreflexia with a right-sided Babinski response. His non-contrast axial CT scan is shown below. Which of the following is the most likely etiology of this patient’s symptoms?
A 38-year-old man presents with a 1-year history of neck pain and left upper extremity weakness. The symptoms started insidiously, and have slowly worsened over time. A sagittal cervical spine MRI is shown below (Left: T2 without contrast. Right: T1 with contrast). Which of the following is the most likely cause of his symptoms?
Identify the darkly stained structures.
Initiation of urination involves which of the following physiologic processes?
A patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) most likely has which of the following findings on electromyography (EMG)?
A 68-year-old right-handed male with HTN and atrial fibrillation formerly taking Eliquis, but stopped months ago due to GI bleed, presents for acute onset neurologic symptoms. He is able to understand speech and commands, however, he is unable to speak fluently and can not get the right words out. Despite this, he is able to accurately repeat words you say and correctly name items that are pointed to. What other neurologic symptom is also likely to be present on the exam?
Which of the following is the mechanism of action of prazosin?
Which of the following is the primary source of norepinephrine in the brain?
Which of the following can not cross the blood-brain barrier via channel-mediated transport?
A 45-year-old female with a recent diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, based on MRI and CSF analysis, is referred to your clinic to discuss possible disease-modifying therapies. You review the clinical history with her and she states that for the past 18 months she has experienced progressive right upper and lower extremity weakness. She denies any periods of transient improvement or dramatic worsening of symptoms. Based on this clinical history, what is the most appropriate disease-modifying therapy for this patient?
This brain biopsy is consistent with which of the following pathologies?
A 67-year-old male wakes up with a painful, right-sided, itchy rash coming across his abdomen like a band involving the umbilicus. His primary care provider is concerned that the patient has shingles. For this patient, re-activation of the varicella-zoster virus occurred at the dorsal root ganglion at which thoracic level?
A 55-year-old female with a past medical history of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke with residual mild left arm weakness presents with headaches for a year. Episodes occur two to three times a month. The pain is unilateral and is associated with nausea and photophobia. During this episode, she is unable to go to work and over-the-counter anti-inflammatories have been ineffective. Physical exam and vitals are normal. Which abortive therapy is the most appropriate next step in management?
Identify the structure labeled 4 in the angiograms provided below.