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A 10-month-old male with no significant past medical history has had a 2-month history of abnormal movements. The family describes these events as head drops and head-turning. On examination, horizontal nystagmus is appreciated. MRI revealed no abnormal findings. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 37-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presents to the emergency department with a three-day history of progressive headache, fever, and double vision. Examination shows bilateral proptosis, peri-ocular erythema, and ophthalmoplegia. CT of the head was ordered and showed bony destruction of the sinuses. Based on the most likely diagnosis, which of the following is the most appropriate treatment?
Immunohistochemical staining with GFAP is particularly useful in identifying which of the following cell types?
A 19-year-old female who was admitted to the epilepsy monitoring unit for medically refractory epilepsy had one of her typical seizures captured during recording (see below). Which of the following symptoms did the patient most likely experience at the time of this recording?
A 27-year-old woman presents with recurrent episodes of tinnitus, vertigo, and hearing loss. She denies any associated headaches. Episodes typically last between 2 and 6 hours in duration. MRI of the brain with and without contrast did not reveal any pathology. Physical examination is unremarkable except for sensorineural hearing loss appreciated in the right ear. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 24-year-old patient had a severe unhelmeted motorcycle accident and despite best efforts by medication providers, he passed away two days later. An autopsy was performed. Identify the structure marked by the white arrow.
Which of the following is the mechanism of action for amantadine?
A 40-year-old with AIDs (CD4 count 60) presents to the emergency room with a 2-month history of progressive headache, confusion, and left sided weakness. MRI brain with and without contrast was performed and it showed ring-enhancing lesions in the basal ganglia and the right frontal lobe. A brain biopsy was performed and shown below. Which is the most likely diagnosis?
A 68-year-old woman with a history of diabetes and hypertension presented urgently to the ED with a 2-day history of headaches and confusion. Before any imaging was able to be completed in the emergency room, the patient had a cardiac arrest and died. An autopsy was requested by the family. A gross pathologic image of the patient’s brain is shown below. What is the most likely etiology of the findings seen in this image?
A 60-year-old female with a past medical history of chronic alcohol use was admitted to the hospital 4 days ago for community-acquired pneumonia. Over the last 48 hours, the patient developed severe encephalopathy and generalized weakness. An axial T2 FLAIR MRI is shown. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?