-The initiation of non-REM sleep is controlled largely by cells found in the ventrolateral preoptic area, anterior region of the hypothalamus, and the basal forebrain, as well as the parafacial zone of the medulla.
The initiation of REM sleep: primarily initiated in the dorsal pons in the subcoeruleus nucleus (aka. sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus).
-Wakefulness is controlled by neuronal groups containing monoamines (norepinephrine, histamine, serotonin, and dopamine) as well as hypocretin (orexin), acetylcholine, and glutamate.
*norepinephrine, histamine, serotonin, and dopamine) as well as hypocretin (orexin), acetylcholine, and glutamate
–Histamine-containing neurons are located in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the caudal hypothalamus
–Serotonin-producing neurons exist in the raphe nuclei in the brainstem, pons primarily
–dopamine located in ventral tegmental areas and periaqueductal gray
–hypocretin-containing neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus (Loss of hypocretin is associated with narcolepsy and cataplexy).
–Acetylcholine-containing neurons are mainly in the basal forebrain, and the laterodorsal tegmental and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei of the pons.
–Glutamate is an excitatory amino acid expressed by neurons in the pons and midbrain reticular formation