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A 37-year-old woman treated for herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis two months ago returns to the ER with new personality changes, seizures, and orofacial dyskinesia. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 21-year-old man is brought into the clinic by his roommate due to bizarre behavior. For the last 10 months, the patient has been intermittently skipping classes and trying to soundproof his dorm room because he believes the government is watching him. His roommate says that on two separate occasions he caught the patient talking to himself under the bed covers. The neurological exam is normal but the patient refuses to make eye contact and his speech is pressured and tangential. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following nerve conduction study abnormalities is least likely to be seen during the initial phase of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)?
What is the mechanism of action of dabigatran?
A 25-year-old female with no significant past medical history presents with a two-day history of progressive bilateral lower extremity weakness and numbness. On physical exam, she has 3/5 strength in hip flexion and knee extension bilaterally, along with a loss of sensation. She is up to date on all vaccinations. She is afebrile. Sagittal (left) and axial (right) T2 thoracic MRI images are shown below. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 32-year-old male comes into the headache clinic for severe headaches. They occur several times a day and last approximately one hour. They are only felt on the left side of his head, and he says he gets a runny nose and a little teary during the episodes. What is a notable side effect of the prophylactic medicine that is considered first-line therapy for this condition?
A 6-year-old male with a history of medically-refractory epilepsy (on three anti-seizure medications), and right-sided-hemiparesis, presents to the emergency room with a three-day history of continuous right facial twitching. Symptoms persist during sleep and have not responded to benzodiazepines. On examination, the patient has retained awareness despite the continuous facial movements. MRI brain was performed and shown below. Of the following, which is the most appropriate therapy to achieve seizure freedom?
A 9-year-old boy presents with his mother for 18 months of multiple complaints. He reports having continuous thoughts of needing to wash his hands and building anxiety until he can perform the action. He spends more than an hour in total every day washing his hands. He also has stereotyped movements on exam with head turning and shoulder shrug, and will sometimes shout random words. Lab and imaging workup is negative. Which of the following medications, paired with cognitive behavioral therapy, is most indicated?
Which of the following is the most appropriate pharmacologic agent for type II episodic ataxia?
Which of the following areas, if selectively lesioned, would cause an error with voluntary vertical saccades with spared horizontal saccades and sparred occulocephalic vertical reflex?
A 59-year-old man with HTN, T2D, and peripheral vascular disease presents with sudden complete loss of vision in the left eye, which resolved after about 20 minutes. He denies any other symptoms. Which of the following vessels was most likely obstructed?
With of the following CMT types present with an axonal pre-dominant peripheral neuropathy?
A patient presents to the emergency room with sudden onset weakness and dysphagia. On exam, the patient’s tongue deviates to the left, and there is right hemiparesis and right-sided loss of position and vibratory sensation. Pain and temperature sensation is intact. Which of the following arteries supplies blood to the damaged area?
Vasogenic edema would be best appreciated on which of the following MRI sequences?
A 33-year-old woman with a past medical history of depression is brought to the clinic by her husband because of atypical behavior. For the past three weeks, her thoughts have become progressively more disorganized. She is also having auditory hallucinations. Similar behavior has been seen intermittently over the past five years. Despite having a history of depression, her husband says the depression has been well controlled for the last three months. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Motor unit action potential (MUAP) conduction velocities of a newborn are what percentage of an adult?
A previously healthy 14-year-old female presents to the emergency room after experiencing a trip and fall where she hit her head. She returns to baseline, but out of caution a CT head and subsequent MRI brain are performed in the ED. What is a potential complication caused by this lesion seen in this MRI?
A healthy 24-year-old female was admitted to the epilepsy monitoring unit for spell classification. What state is the patient during this segment of recording?
All of the following medications have Level A or B evidence in migraine prophylaxis except:
An 8-year-old boy is brought to the neurology clinic due to an 18-month history of repetitive, involuntary movements of his face and body. His mother states that he has been bullied at school because of it, which is causing him significant distress and anxiety. His birth history and developmental history are normal. On physical exam, the patient has excessive blinking and occasionally jerks his right shoulder upwards at rest. The physical exam is otherwise within normal limits. which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 37-year-old male presents with sudden onset of tachycardia and hypertension, followed shortly by unilateral rhythmic facial and then arm jerking. The autonomic symptoms of tachycardia and hypertension are most likely to reflect the involvement of which region of the brain during a seizure?
A 30-year-old woman with well-controlled epilepsy with lamotrigine monotherapy comes to the clinic today stating that she and her husband are planning to start a family. Which of the following statements is most correct regarding her clinical situation?
A 78-year-old man presents to the ER with headache, fever, diplopia, and hiccups. MRI with the brain with and without contrast shows small contrast-enhancing abscesses in the brainstem, sparing supratentorial cerebral tissue. Which of the following infectious agents classically presents in this fashion?
A 19-year-old female who was admitted to the epilepsy monitoring unit for medically refractory epilepsy had one of her typical seizures captured during recording (see below). Which of the following symptoms did the patient most likely experience at the time of this recording?
A neurology consult is placed on a full-term newborn male after being delivered by an uncomplicated vaginal delivery with good APGAR scores. The physical exam reveals a midline lesion in his lumbar region. Based on the pathology shown below, which of the following would most likely also be present on head imaging?
Carbidopa is given concurrently with levodopa to reduce the risk of which of the following side effects?
A 38-year-old man with long-standing migraines was recently hospitalized for an unprovoked seizure. Upon further questioning, the patient admits to a strong family history of headaches and early strokes. A brain MRI is completed and a T2 sequence image is shown below. This patient likely has a mutation in which of the following genes?
A newborn male is evaluated in the NICU for a lesion on his lower back. He was born to a mother with no prenatal care at 37 weeks gestation. Imaging of his lower back shows the meninges and spinal cord herniated through the defect, covered in a membrane. His condition could have most likely been prevented through prenatal supplemental with what?
A 10-year-old female from the northeastern United Stated presents to the ED with her mother after a one-week history of difficulties in school and difficulties with speech. Her mother states that two weeks ago the patient had a rash on her leg and viral-like symptoms that went away within a few days. Then, this past week the patient’s teacher reported that she was having difficulties with attention in school and was performing very poorly on assignments. Her mother also confirmed that the patient has been more forgetful and is also slurring her speech. An MRI of the brain was performed and it showed multifocal white matter lesions. Of note, the patient likes to spend a lot of time outdoors and recently went on a camping trip. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
Where is the anatomic origin of the normal EEG sleep structure seen in the 3rd second of this recording?
A 35-year-old female with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder is being seen in the clinic for the first time with a history of progressive difficulties walking. On examination, there was difficulty in fine motor movements and decreased arm swings with ambulation. A CT scan was performed and shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Estrogen-containing oral contraceptive pills are known to reduce serum levels of which of the following medications?
An 83-year-old man presented with an acute onset of difficulty walking and nausea about 12 hours prior to being seen in the emergency room. Examination revealed vertigo and truncal ataxia. An MRI was performed to evaluate for stroke. The FLAIR axial MR image is shown below. What is the vascular territory damaged in the imaging provided?
Which of the following is the chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting?
A 12-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type I is found to have a cerebellar cystic mass with a mural nodule and contrast-enhancing rim after presenting with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. The lesion was surgically resected and an example of the pathologic findings is shown below. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A nine-month-old boy with no significant past medical history is brought to the clinic by his mother because of paroxysmal episodes of unknown etiology. His mother states that since he was six months old, she noticed that his head would intermittently tilt to his right lateral side when he woke up. His head tilt would always disappear during sleep. During these “attacks” the patient would become irritable and would occasionally vomit. The symptoms last up to 48 hours before resolution. Imaging of the brain and EEG do not demonstrate any abnormalities. Which of the following is the most likely cause of these symptoms?
A patient with a recent history of ischemic stroke with almost no residual focal deficits except for a mild right-sided facial droop presents to the emergency room with altered mental status. Vital signs are only impressive for a low-grade fever. CT head and CTA show no acute changes when compared to imaging completed for his initial stroke. Blood work shows thrombocytopenia, anemia, and renal failure. A severe drug reaction is suspected. Which of the following medications is most likely the cause of this clinical presentation?
A 5-year-old male presents because of muscle stiffness. His symptoms are worse during the colder winter months and with gym class at school. He sometimes becomes so stiff he can hardly breathe. Examination shows no muscle atrophy or hypertrophy but myotonia is present. Upon further questioning, you learn he has an older brother with similar symptoms. What is the likely dysfunctional gene in this patient?
A 33-year-old patient presents in the clinic for evaluation of bilateral leg weakness, and urinary incontinence. He first started noticing right leg weakness about 2 years ago and then a few months later felt similar symptoms developing in his left foot. These symptoms gradually worsened over time to the point that he had to start using a cane because of frequent falls. Imaging of the whole neuroaxis was performed. MRI of the brain showed several periventricular and juxtacortical T2 hyperintensities with no enhancement. A lumbar puncture was performed and it had unique CSF oligoclonal bands. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 47-year-old man with a history of bilateral cataract surgery at the age of 20 presents to the clinic for evaluation of progressive unsteadiness and cognitive decline. His father and older brother reportedly had similar symptoms in their early adulthood as well. On exam, there is notable dysmetria and gait ataxia. There were also abnormal soft-tissue masses appreciated near the Achilles tendons bilaterally. Which of the following is most likely to be abnormal in this patient blood?
A 6-year-old girl presents to the clinic with frequent episodes of awakening from sleep in extreme fear. Sometimes she has a brief twitching of the limbs with this. She has these events in clusters on some nights, lasting seconds to minutes. On further questioning, you discover the mother had a similar problem when she was around this age, which slowly got better over time. Both patient and mother are otherwise healthy with no intellectual deficits or symptomatic features. Which of the following gene mutations do they both likely share?
Which of the following is seen on muscle biopsy in patients with steroid myopathy?
A 68-year-old male presents with complaints of insomnia for 2 years. On further questioning, he also endorses a 2 years period of feelings of guilt about his sleeping, considerably low appetite (current BMI = 17), and low energy. He used to enjoy checkers but has lost interest in most activities these days. He denies suicidal ideation. He has previously declined medications to help with this, but he says he is ready to try something. Which of the following medications is most appropriate?
Identify the lesion below.
Which of the following findings is depicted in the vessel imaging shown?
A 32-year-old male with a longstanding history of epilepsy secondary to mesial temporal sclerosis returns to your clinic. Despite being on appropriate doses of levetiracetam and valproic acid he continues to have 20 partial seizures and 4 generalized tonic-clonic seizures per month. Which of the following is the next best step in his care?
A 41-year-old male presents to the emergency room with a two-day history of neck pain and speech difficulties. CT head shows scattered hypodensities in the left ACA and MCA territories. His Sagittal CT angiogram of the neck is shown below. What is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?
Of the following, which region of the adult brain is most susceptible to hypoperfusion injury and ischemia?
The electrical fields that generate the cortical activity appreciated on electroencephalogram (EEG) are the result of which of the following?